Europe's Century of Discontent: The...

With the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe, a number of questions regarding the conventional understanding of totalitarianism could now be viewed in the new light. The classical studies of totalitarianism were undertaken when Nazism and Fascism had been vanquished, while the Soviet system still existed: this created an asymmetry which could now be overcome. The ideological Cold War edge which sometimes accompanied debates about totalitarianism was similar

viii PREFACE How much of this has been vindicated by what we have learned, in the meantime, about these systems – and how much has to be revised? Because terror and mass murder have accompanied Fascism, Nazism and Communism, we asked whether these have been inherent in the internal logic of their thought systems, or whether their emergence could be seen as an outcome of historical contingencies. Related to this, we suggested to the participants to try to address the extent to which there have been significant chasms between ideology and its realization in the different systems. With the new perspectives made available after 1989, we also asked the participants to reflect on the different ways in which the various systems came to their end: here through a crushing military defeat inflicted from outside, there via an internal implosion. Furthermore, we asked them to look into the question whether the different ways of their demise left different legacies for the successor regimes and the societies grown out of the debacles. Last but not least, while we were not trying to answer the excruciating question of “ the lesser evil,” can one say today that “ left” and “ right” totalitarianism were basically, as was usually claimed during the Cold War, merely two different forms of the same phenomenon – or that there were such fundamental differences in their ideological premises and structures that the behavior of both regimes as well as their ultimate fate cannot be divorced from these differences. Because the nature of the questions asked moved from the theoretical to the practical, we were happy to have as participants not only scholars but also a number of persons who were instrumental in the dramatic post- 1989 transformations, primarily in Poland and Hungary. *** We would like to thank Ms. Révital Goldberg, Executive Secretary of the Institute for European Studies at the Hebrew University, for her unstinting devotion and perseverance in the organization of the conference and the preparation of this volume. Without her dedication and stamina, the conference – which was held during a difficult period in Israel – would not have taken place. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the dedicated work of the staff of The PREFACE   C h a p t e r Home  | T O C

Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism


About Book Europe's Century of Discontent: The Legacies of Fascism, Nazism and Communism

Front matterTitle PageCopyrightContentsPrefacePart One. THE THEORETICAL DIMENSIONFROM COUNTER-ENLIGHTENMENT TO THE REVOLUTIONS OF THE 20TH CENTURYTHE CONCEPT OF TYRANNYTHE DECAY OF THE NATION STATE AND PEOPLES SOVEREIGNTY: THE ORIGINS OF TOTALITARIANISM REVISITEDPart Two. IDEOLOGY AND POLITICAL DYNAMICSTAKING FASCISM SERIOUSLYThe Disappearance of FascismThe Originality of Fascism: The Old QuestionsNew QuestionsTaking Fascism SeriouslyTodayNAZISM, COMMUNISM AND THE MORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE INEFFABILITY OF MEMORYRHETORICS OF HIERARCHY: ON LINGUISTIC AND IDEOLOGICAL PREMISES OF TOTALITARIAN FASCISMTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF FASCIST REGIMES: ELITES, SINGLE PARTIES AND POLITICAL DECISION- MAKING IN FASCIST ERA DICTATORSHIPSPower and Political Decision-Making During SalazarismMussolini and Italian FascismHitler and German National SocialismConclusions: Where is Fascism as a Political Regime?Part Three. THEORY AND REALITYSLOGANS RATHER THAN CONVERSATIONTOTALITARIAN REGIMESIntroduction1. The Evolution of the Concept of Totalitarian Regimes: A Critical Review2. A Typology of Political Regimes3. Types of Totalitarian Regimes4. The Stability of Totalitarian Regimes5. Totalitarian Regimes of the Twentieth CenturyReferencesPart Four. THE COMPARATIVE DIMENSIONTHE PROBLEM OF THE PARTY IN A POLICE STATE : NAZI AND SOVIET COMPARISONSThe Place of the PartyThe Politics of Mass ParticipationConclusionsIDEOLOGY AND CONTINGENCY IN TOTALITARIANISMS VIOLENCE: A COMPARATIVE APPROACH OF NAZISM, COMMUNISM, FASCISM TOTALITARIANISM : FROM AN INSTRUMENTAL TERM IN THE PUBLIC DEBATE TO AN ANALYTICAL CATEGORY THE INTERWAR DEBATE IN FRANCEThe Comparison Between Fascism and Communism: Natural Weapon of the CentristsA Refutation of ExtremismToward the Creation of an Academic CategoryPart Five. AFTERMATH AND LEGACIESEQUALITY OF VICTIMS EQUALITY OF REGIMES?THE AMBIVALENT LEGACY OF FASCISM IN ITALYANTI-EXTREMISM, NEGATIVE REPUBLICANISM, CIVIC SOCIETY: THREE PARADIGMS FOR BANNING POLITICAL PARTIESIntroductionI. Anti-extremismII. Negative RepublicanismIII. Civic Society: Towards a New Abstraction?IV. ConclusionIN LIEU OF AN EPILOGUE: IDEOLOGY AND REALITY IN NAZISM AND COMMUNISMLIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
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