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190 name, and they agreed

editor James Hastings
190 name, and they agreed that, if interrogated, they should describe themselves as belonging to the ‘ Company of Jesus’ ( Astrain, i. 89). When they had found favour with the pope, the scheme of a definite religious institute ( formula instituti) was drafted, and approved in the bull Regimini mili · tantis ecclesioe, 27th Sept. 1540. On 4th April 1541 Ignatius, in spite of his own reluctance, was elected superior, and from that date until 1550 he busied himself at Rome in compiling constitutions. The spread of the Society was extraordinarily rapid, and, as the twelve volumes of his correspondence attest, the official business connected with his office of General steadily increased day by day until his death on 31st July 1556. Ignatius was interested, and he considered it the duty of his subjects to be interested, in every form of religious work which was for the greater glory of God. Although the Society of Jesus was the backbone of the Counter- Reformation movement, it would be a mistake to regard the Order as having been instituted with the conscious design of counteracting the religious teaching of Luther and Calvin. The central idea, which is found alike in the Exercises and in numberless passages of the Constitutions, and which may be taken as the dominant conception of the whole Ignatian spirituality, was the desire to assist in and carry on the work of rescue and sanctification for which Jesus Christ had come on earth. Loyola was not in any way a man of brilliant intellectual gifts, but he possessed clear judgment and indomitable energy; and, contrary to the idea so often formed of his religious descendants, he was by the testimony of all who knew him a man who was absolutely fearless and straightforward in all his relations with others. He was beatified in 1609 and canonized in 1622. LITERATURE.— The first place among the sources for the life of Ignatius Loyola must always be given to the so- called ‘ Auto-biography,’ dictated by the Saint to Luis Gonzalez de Camara. A Latin version is printed in AS, 31st July, vii., but a more accurate text in the original, partly Spanish and partly Italian, has been provided in the Monumenta Ignatiana, Scripta de S. Ignatio ( i. 31– 98), which form part of the great collection of Monumenta Historica Societatis Jesu ( Madrid, 1894 ff.), edited by the Spanish Jesuits. In fact, the whole contents of the Monumenta Ignatiana, which include a critical ed., in 12 vols., of Loyola’s own letters and official documents, are of first- rate importance. An Eng. tr. of the Autobiography ( by E. M. Rix), with notes, appeared under the title The Testament of Ignatius Loyola, London, 1900. See also J. Susta, ‘ Ignatius von Loyola’s Selbstbiographie,’ in Mitteilungen des Inst. für österr. Ge-schichtsforschung, xxvi. [ 1905] 45– 106. A vast number of papers and letters which bear upon the history of Ignatius and his first companions may be found in the other volumes of the Monumenta Historica Soc. Jesu. The biography of Ignatius by Pedro Ribadeneira, which appeared originally in more than one redaction— the first at Naples, in 1572— is also re- edited in AS, loc. cit. A young disciple of the saint, who knew him and lived with him, Ribadeneira is an important authority. Translations of this life have been published in French and many other languages. Of the 17th cent. biographies of Loyola by far the most valuable is that of D. Bartoli, who had important original materials at his command. The best available ed. is in French, with supplementary notes, by L. Michel ( Bartoli, Histoire de S. Ignace de Loyola, 2 vols., Lille, 1893). Of other lives the best are C. Genelli, Das Leben des heil. Ignatius von Loyola, Innsbruck, 1848, Eng. tr. 2, London, 1881; ‘ Stewart Rose,’ Life of St. Ignatius Loyola3, London, 1891; F. Thompson, Life of St. Ignatius, do. 1910. An excellent short sketch is that of H. Joly ( St. Ignace de Loyola5, Paris, 1904, Eng. tr., London, 1899). But by far the most trustworthy source of information among modern works is to be found in A. Astrain, Historia de la Compañίa de Jesús, i., Madrid, 1902, this volume being en-tirely devoted to the period of the life of Ignatius. It may be supplemented for French affairs by H. Fouqueray, Histoire de la Compagnie de Jésus en France, i., Paris, 1910; and for those of Italy by P. Tacchi Venturi, Storia della Compagnia di Gesú in Italia, i., Rome, 1909. See also J. Creixell, San Ignacio en Barcelona, Barcelona, 1906. Few of those who have studied the life of Loyola from an antagonistic or Protestant standpoint seem to have taken the trouble to acquaint themselves accurately even with the facts of his career. The best is perhaps E. Gothein, Ignatius von Loyola und die Gegenreformation, Halle, 1895, but on this see Analecta Bollandiana, xv. [ 1896] 449– 454. Even more fantastic is H. Müller, Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jésus. Paris, 1898, on which cf. The Month, xciv. [ 1899] 516– 526. Some valuable materials and criticisms are, however, contained in the work, very hostile in tone, of the ex- Jesuit M. Mir, Historia interna documentada de la Companίa de Jesús, Madrid, 1913. Other points of criticism are dealt with by B. Duhr, Jesuiten-fabeln4, Freiburg i. B., 1904; H. Stoeckius, Forschungen zur Lebensordnung der Gesellschaft Jesu im 16ten Jahrhundert, Munich, 1910 ff. The only works of St. Ignatius besides his letters are the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. A facsimile of the ‘ autograph’ of the Spanish original of the Ejercicios Espirituales was published in Rome in 1908; innumerable other editions, including several English tran-slations, have been published in every language. The most illuminating discussion of the genesis of the Exercises is supplied by H. Watrigant, La Genèse des Exercices de S. Ignace, Amiens, 1897. As to the Constitutions, a facsimile of the original Spanish text has appeared, Constituciones de la Compañía de Jesús, reproduccion fototipica, Rome, 1898, with valuable illustrative material. HERBEBT THURSTON. L UCI A N.— See ANTIOCHENE THEOLOGY. L UCK  .— See CALENDAR, CHARMS AND AMULETS,   DIVINATION. L UCR E T I US .— Titus Lucretius Carus was a Roman poet ( 99 [?]— 55 B. C.) who, in the last century of the republic, accepted the philosophy of Epicurus, and expounded it to his countrymen in a noble didactic poem, entitled de Rerum Natura. I. Life and writings.— Little is known of Lucretius except a notice in Jerome’s additions to the Eusebian chronicle, under the year of Abraham 1923 (= 94 B. C.): ‘ Titus Lucretius poeta nascitur. Postea amatorio poculo in furorem versus, cum aliquot libros per intervalla insaniæ conscripsisset, quos postea Cicero emendavit, propria se manu interfecit anno ætatis quadragesimo quarto.‘ This strange story of madness and suicide, which Tennyson has made familiar, is no doubt derived ultimately from Suetonius, de Vir. Illust., and, if it comes from such an antiquary, probably has a basis of fact ( cf. Lachmann on i. 922, p. 63 of his ed.; Munro4, ii. 1 ff.; Sellar, Roman Poets of the Republic, p. 283 ff.). But there is an error of four or five years either in the birth year or in the age assigned to the poet, most likely in the former. According to Donatus ( Vit. Verg.), Lucretius died on 15th October 55 B. C., and not, as Jerome’s figures would imply, in 51 or 50 B. C. This is confirmed by the earliest extant mention of the poem in a letter of Cicero to his brother Quintus ( ad Quint, fr., II. ix. 4). This letter, written early in 54 B. C., presupposes the publication of the poem and, presumably, the poet’s death. For on internal evidence alone most scholars agree that de Rerum Natura, like Vergil’s Æneid, never received a final revision from the author’s hand; certain passages, especially in the last three books, seem to be afterthoughts or additions imperfectly adjusted to their context. In the dearth of external testimony, something may be gleaned from the poem itself. It seems clear that the author was a Roman noble, well acquainted with the luxury of the time ( ii. 24– 28, iv. 75 ff., 973, 1121) and with the rivalry and ambition of political life ( ii. 11 ff., 40 ff., v. 1120 ff.). Strongly impressed by the crime and bloodshed of the civil wars ( i. 29 f., 40– 43, iii. 70– 74, v. 999 ff.), he deliberately chose, almost alone among the Romans, a contemplative life ( i. 922 ff., ii. 1 ff., iii. 1 ff). Further, we see that he possessed a poet’s clear, minute, exact observation with a poet’s love of nature and delight in open- air scenes ( i. 280 ff., 305, 326, 404 ff., ii. 144– 149, 323– 332, 342 ff., 349 ff., 361 ff., 374 ff., 766 f., iv. 220, 575, v. 256, 991 ff., vi. 256– 261, 472), that he had unbounded reverence for Epicurus, both as a scientific discoverer and as a moral reformer ( iii. 9– 30, v. 1 ff., vi. 1 ff.), that Democritus and Empedocles were also objects of respectful admiration ( i. 729– 733, iii. 371, 1039), and that he never mentions the Stoics or the Socratic Schools, although sometimes alluding to their doctrines, ‘ quod quidam fingunt’ ( i. 371; cf. 690 ff., 1083, ii. 167– 176). He dedicated the work LUCRETIUSAnd— Art | Art— Bun  | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic  | Fic— Hyk  | Hym— Lib  | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr  | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi   P a g e      V i e w    P a g e     V i e w  Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index

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190 name, and they agreed that, if interrogated, they should describe themselves as belonging to the ‘ Company of Jesus’ ( Astrain, i. 89). When they had found favour with the pope, the scheme of a definite religious institute ( formula instituti) was drafted, and approved in the bull Regimini mili · tantis ecclesioe, 27th Sept. 1540. On 4th April 1541 Ignatius, in spite of his own reluctance, was elected superior, and from that date until 1550 he busied himself at Rome in compiling constitutions. The spread of the Society was extraordinarily rapid, and, as the twelve volumes of his correspondence attest, the official business connected with his office of General steadily increased day by day until his death on 31st July 1556. Ignatius was interested, and he considered it the duty of his subjects to be interested, in every form of religious work which was for the greater glory of God. Although the Society of Jesus was the backbone of the Counter- Reformation movement, it would be a mistake to regard the Order as having been instituted with the conscious design of counteracting the religious teaching of Luther and Calvin. The central idea, which is found alike in the Exercises and in numberless passages of the Constitutions, and which may be taken as the dominant conception of the whole Ignatian spirituality, was the desire to assist in and carry on the work of rescue and sanctification for which Jesus Christ had come on earth. Loyola was not in any way a man of brilliant intellectual gifts, but he possessed clear judgment and indomitable energy; and, contrary to the idea so often formed of his religious descendants, he was by the testimony of all who knew him a man who was absolutely fearless and straightforward in all his relations with others. He was beatified in 1609 and canonized in 1622. LITERATURE.— The first place among the sources for the life of Ignatius Loyola must always be given to the so- called ‘ Auto-biography,’ dictated by the Saint to Luis Gonzalez de Camara. A Latin version is printed in AS, 31st July, vii., but a more accurate text in the original, partly Spanish and partly Italian, has been provided in the Monumenta Ignatiana, Scripta de S. Ignatio ( i. 31– 98), which form part of the great collection of Monumenta Historica Societatis Jesu ( Madrid, 1894 ff.), edited by the Spanish Jesuits. In fact, the whole contents of the Monumenta Ignatiana, which include a critical ed., in 12 vols., of Loyola’s own letters and official documents, are of first- rate importance. An Eng. tr. of the Autobiography ( by E. M. Rix), with notes, appeared under the title The Testament of Ignatius Loyola, London, 1900. See also J. Susta, ‘ Ignatius von Loyola’s Selbstbiographie,’ in Mitteilungen des Inst. für österr. Ge-schichtsforschung, xxvi. [ 1905] 45– 106. A vast number of papers and letters which bear upon the history of Ignatius and his first companions may be found in the other volumes of the Monumenta Historica Soc. Jesu. The biography of Ignatius by Pedro Ribadeneira, which appeared originally in more than one redaction— the first at Naples, in 1572— is also re- edited in AS, loc. cit. A young disciple of the saint, who knew him and lived with him, Ribadeneira is an important authority. Translations of this life have been published in French and many other languages. Of the 17th cent. biographies of Loyola by far the most valuable is that of D. Bartoli, who had important original materials at his command. The best available ed. is in French, with supplementary notes, by L. Michel ( Bartoli, Histoire de S. Ignace de Loyola, 2 vols., Lille, 1893). Of other lives the best are C. Genelli, Das Leben des heil. Ignatius von Loyola, Innsbruck, 1848, Eng. tr. 2, London, 1881; ‘ Stewart Rose,’ Life of St. Ignatius Loyola3, London, 1891; F. Thompson, Life of St. Ignatius, do. 1910. An excellent short sketch is that of H. Joly ( St. Ignace de Loyola5, Paris, 1904, Eng. tr., London, 1899). But by far the most trustworthy source of information among modern works is to be found in A. Astrain, Historia de la Compañίa de Jesús, i., Madrid, 1902, this volume being en-tirely devoted to the period of the life of Ignatius. It may be supplemented for French affairs by H. Fouqueray, Histoire de la Compagnie de Jésus en France, i., Paris, 1910; and for those of Italy by P. Tacchi Venturi, Storia della Compagnia di Gesú in Italia, i., Rome, 1909. See also J. Creixell, San Ignacio en Barcelona, Barcelona, 1906. Few of those who have studied the life of Loyola from an antagonistic or Protestant standpoint seem to have taken the trouble to acquaint themselves accurately even with the facts of his career. The best is perhaps E. Gothein, Ignatius von Loyola und die Gegenreformation, Halle, 1895, but on this see Analecta Bollandiana, xv. [ 1896] 449– 454. Even more fantastic is H. Müller, Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jésus. Paris, 1898, on which cf. The Month, xciv. [ 1899] 516– 526. Some valuable materials and criticisms are, however, contained in the work, very hostile in tone, of the ex- Jesuit M. Mir, Historia interna documentada de la Companίa de Jesús, Madrid, 1913. Other points of criticism are dealt with by B. Duhr, Jesuiten-fabeln4, Freiburg i. B., 1904; H. Stoeckius, Forschungen zur Lebensordnung der Gesellschaft Jesu im 16ten Jahrhundert, Munich, 1910 ff. The only works of St. Ignatius besides his letters are the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. A facsimile of the ‘ autograph’ of the Spanish original of the Ejercicios Espirituales was published in Rome in 1908; innumerable other editions, including several English tran-slations, have been published in every language. The most illuminating discussion of the genesis of the Exercises is supplied by H. Watrigant, La Genèse des Exercices de S. Ignace, Amiens, 1897. As to the Constitutions, a facsimile of the original Spanish text has appeared, Constituciones de la Compañía de Jesús, reproduccion fototipica, Rome, 1898, with valuable illustrative material. HERBEBT THURSTON. L UCI A N.— See ANTIOCHENE THEOLOGY. L UCK .— See CALENDAR, CHARMS AND AMULETS, DIVINATION. L UCR E T I US .— Titus Lucretius Carus was a Roman poet ( 99 [?]— 55 B. C.) who, in the last century of the republic, accepted the philosophy of Epicurus, and expounded it to his countrymen in a noble didactic poem, entitled de Rerum Natura. I. Life and writings.— Little is known of Lucretius except a notice in Jerome’s additions to the Eusebian chronicle, under the year of Abraham 1923 (= 94 B. C.): ‘ Titus Lucretius poeta nascitur. Postea amatorio poculo in furorem versus, cum aliquot libros per intervalla insaniæ conscripsisset, quos postea Cicero emendavit, propria se manu interfecit anno ætatis quadragesimo quarto.‘ This strange story of madness and suicide, which Tennyson has made familiar, is no doubt derived ultimately from Suetonius, de Vir. Illust., and, if it comes from such an antiquary, probably has a basis of fact ( cf. Lachmann on i. 922, p. 63 of his ed.; Munro4, ii. 1 ff.; Sellar, Roman Poets of the Republic, p. 283 ff.). But there is an error of four or five years either in the birth year or in the age assigned to the poet, most likely in the former. According to Donatus ( Vit. Verg.), Lucretius died on 15th October 55 B. C., and not, as Jerome’s figures would imply, in 51 or 50 B. C. This is confirmed by the earliest extant mention of the poem in a letter of Cicero to his brother Quintus ( ad Quint, fr., II. ix. 4). This letter, written early in 54 B. C., presupposes the publication of the poem and, presumably, the poet’s death. For on internal evidence alone most scholars agree that de Rerum Natura, like Vergil’s Æneid, never received a final revision from the author’s hand; certain passages, especially in the last three books, seem to be afterthoughts or additions imperfectly adjusted to their context. In the dearth of external testimony, something may be gleaned from the poem itself. It seems clear that the author was a Roman noble, well acquainted with the luxury of the time ( ii. 24– 28, iv. 75 ff., 973, 1121) and with the rivalry and ambition of political life ( ii. 11 ff., 40 ff., v. 1120 ff.). Strongly impressed by the crime and bloodshed of the civil wars ( i. 29 f., 40– 43, iii. 70– 74, v. 999 ff.), he deliberately chose, almost alone among the Romans, a contemplative life ( i. 922 ff., ii. 1 ff., iii. 1 ff). Further, we see that he possessed a poet’s clear, minute, exact observation with a poet’s love of nature and delight in open- air scenes ( i. 280 ff., 305, 326, 404 ff., ii. 144– 149, 323– 332, 342 ff., 349 ff., 361 ff., 374 ff., 766 f., iv. 220, 575, v. 256, 991 ff., vi. 256– 261, 472), that he had unbounded reverence for Epicurus, both as a scientific discoverer and as a moral reformer ( iii. 9– 30, v. 1 ff., vi. 1 ff.), that Democritus and Empedocles were also objects of respectful admiration ( i. 729– 733, iii. 371, 1039), and that he never mentions the Stoics or the Socratic Schools, although sometimes alluding to their doctrines, ‘ quod quidam fingunt’ ( i. 371; cf. 690 ff., 1083, ii. 167– 176). He dedicated the work LUCRETIUS And— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi << P a g e > > < < V i e w >> << P a g e > > < < V i e w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index
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