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673 The Vita S. Genovefæ

editor James Hastings
673 The Vita S. Genovefæ clearly shows that even then ( c. A. D. 550) it was believed in Gaul that only a bishop had power to consecrate the oil ( forte ac-cidit ut Genovefa oleum non haberet nec adesset in tempore pontifex qui ad praesens oleo gratiam sanctificationis infunderet [ c. 40]). Similarly the Vita S. Hypatii ( AS, 17 June, p. 251) tells us how Hypatius, who was long infirmarian of his monastery, used, when any illness grew serious, to send for the abbot, ‘ since he was a priest’ and Hypatius himself was not, in order that the sick man might be duly anointed. This Life is assigned by Bardenhewer to about the year 450. With the 8th cent. the evidence regarding the nature and rite of Extreme Unction grows more abundant. Bede speaks of it in some detail in his commentary on St. James ( PL xciii. 39), and St. Boniface ( about 745) in his Canons orders priests to have the oil for the sick constantly at hand, and to instruct the faithful, when they feel ill, to apply for the Unction. Similarly in the 9th cent. many Councils, beginning with those of Chalons ( 813), Aachen ( 836), and Mainz ( 847), issue various injunctions on the subject, generally making allusion to the Epistle of St. James. The term ‘ Extreme Unction’ seems to occur for the first time in the 15th of the Canons ascribed to Bishop Sonnatius: ‘ Extrema unctio deferatur laboranti et petenti’ ( Mansi, x. 599). These Canons may be as early as the 7th cent., but we have no certainty on this point. The name ‘ Extreme Unction’ became common only at a considerably later epoch. It was in all probability suggested by its being the last in order of the unctions a man was likely to receive, but no doubt the association of the Unction with the Viaticum and approaching death made the term seem speci-ally appropriate. LITERATURE.— The fullest and most recent discussion of the subject from the Roman standpoint is that of J. Kern, de Sacramento Extremoe Unctionis Tractatus Dogmaticus, Re-gensburg, 1907, a treatise that has been largely utilized by P. J. Toner, in the Cath. Encycl. v. 716– 730. An excellently condensed summary of the historical aspects of the case is given by J. de Guibert, s. v. ‘ Extrème Onction,’ in the Dict. apol. de la foi catholique, i. 1868– 1872. See also A. Tan-querey, Synopsis Theol. Dogmat. Specialist, Tournai, 1906, ii. 567– 589; C. Pesch, Proelectiones Dogmaticoe3, Freiburg, 1909, vii. 249– 281; Wilhelm- Scannell, Manual of Catholic Theology, London, 1898, ii. 485– 493; Lejay, in RHLR x. [ 1905] 606– 610; F. Probst, Sakramente und Sakramentalien, Tübingen, 1872, p. 373 ff.; M. Heimbucher, Die heilige Oelung, Regensburg, 1888; I. Schmitz, de Effectibus Sacr. Extremoe Unctionis, Freiburg, 1893; M. Chardon, Hist. des sacrements, Paris, 1745; J. Pohle, Lehrbuch der Dogmatik3, Paderborn, 1907, iii. 523– 548; E. Martène, de Antiquis Ecclesioe Eitibus, Venice, 1788, i. 296– 350; W. McDonald, in Irish Theol. Quarterly, 1907, pp. 330– 345. As regards the Orthodox Greek Church, see A. v. Maltzew, Sakramente, Berlin, 1898, ccexxiii. and 450– 553; Petrovskij, Hist. of the Akoluthia of the Prayer- Oil, Christianskoje Ctenje, 1903 ( Russ.); Rhalles, On Penance and the Prayer- Oil, Athens, 1905 ( Greek); Jacquemier, ‘ L’Extrème Onction chez les Grecs,’ in Echos d’Orient, ii. Apr.- May, 1899. Of writers unsympathetic to the Roman view may be men-tioned the important work of F. W. Puller, The Anointing of the Sick in Scripture and Tradition, London, 1904; J. B. Mayor, The Epistle of St. James3, London, 1910, p. 370 ff.; W. E. Scudamore, in DCA ii. 2000; and Kattenbusch, in PRE3 xiv. 304– 311. HERBERT THURSTON. FABI AN SOCIETY FA BI A N SOCI E T Y.— 1. Origin and aims.— The Fabian Society, a small but influential body of English Socialists, was founded in 1884. At that time began the revival of Socialism in England which was attributable mainly to two influences. The teaching of Karl Marx was becom-ing popularized, chiefly through the exertions of French and German refugees; while the crusade of Henry George, whose Progress and Poverty ( 1880) had a remarkable circulation in England, led to the formation of a number of small societ-ies, some of which carried his doctrines much further than he had himself intended, and devel-oped into Socialist organizations. Within three years of one another there were established the Social Democratic Federation, the Socialist League, and the Fabian Society. The first of these was, and remains, saturated with the spirit of Marx, and has had little influence in practical affairs. The League carried on a vigorous agitation for a few years, under the inspiration of William Morris; but it belonged properly to Anarchism, and soon disappeared. The Fabian Society, from the outset, rejected much of the economic teaching of Marx, and very soon discarded also certain Anarchist tendencies which were manifest in its earliest publications. It seems to have owed more to George than to Marx, but its leaders were young men of exceptional capacity, like Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw, who combined with propa-gandist zeal an originality and a lack of reverence for authority which soon gave to the Society a distinctive position in the Socialist movement. Professor Thomas Davidson had gathered around him in London a little group of earnest men who met in one another’s houses, and, under the name of the ‘ Fellowship of the New Life,’ sought to cultivate perfection of individual character. A schism in this Fellowship was the origin of the F Fabian Society, when the Socialist section became an independent group and adopted its name as descriptive of its method of action. Accepting the desirability of progress towards Socialism, it concentrated attention upon the manner of achieving that end, and quickly purged itself of the revolutionary attitude which characterized the other Socialist organizations. Socialism could not be attained by a catastrophic class- war, but by gradual adaptation and development of existing institutions through legislative, constitutional, and peaceful action. Moreover, it was unnecessary to wait until the majority of the people placed themselves under the Socialist banner; a small body of zealous and enlightened men, who had made clear to themselves the next steps needed towards the Socialist goal, might influence all parties in that direction. Hence the Society did not organize a political party, but sought to permeate the existing parties and to work out, in a form adapted to English conditions, the administrative changes which would lead in the direction of Socialism. An open Socialist campaign in politics appeared to offer little chance of suc-cess, and individualism could not be defeated by any single encounter; therefore it was thought that more could be achieved by indirect action, by working as a leaven in existing parties, by concentrating upon a few changes which would command wide support outside the Socialist ranks, but which led in the desired direction. While thus remaining thoroughly Socialistic in its aims, its method was of a strictly practical, and even op-portunist, kind. To its members it gave absolute freedom to choose any means they thought fit for the permeation of all parties and schools of thought; and, though it has latterly shared in establishing the Labour Party, it still has members who belong to the Liberal Party both within andAnd— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi P  a g e      V i e w Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index   P a g e      V i e w

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673 The Vita S. Genovefæ clearly shows that even then ( c. A. D. 550) it was believed in Gaul that only a bishop had power to consecrate the oil ( forte ac-cidit ut Genovefa oleum non haberet nec adesset in tempore pontifex qui ad praesens oleo gratiam sanctificationis infunderet [ c. 40]). Similarly the Vita S. Hypatii ( AS, 17 June, p. 251) tells us how Hypatius, who was long infirmarian of his monastery, used, when any illness grew serious, to send for the abbot, ‘ since he was a priest’ and Hypatius himself was not, in order that the sick man might be duly anointed. This Life is assigned by Bardenhewer to about the year 450. With the 8th cent. the evidence regarding the nature and rite of Extreme Unction grows more abundant. Bede speaks of it in some detail in his commentary on St. James ( PL xciii. 39), and St. Boniface ( about 745) in his Canons orders priests to have the oil for the sick constantly at hand, and to instruct the faithful, when they feel ill, to apply for the Unction. Similarly in the 9th cent. many Councils, beginning with those of Chalons ( 813), Aachen ( 836), and Mainz ( 847), issue various injunctions on the subject, generally making allusion to the Epistle of St. James. The term ‘ Extreme Unction’ seems to occur for the first time in the 15th of the Canons ascribed to Bishop Sonnatius: ‘ Extrema unctio deferatur laboranti et petenti’ ( Mansi, x. 599). These Canons may be as early as the 7th cent., but we have no certainty on this point. The name ‘ Extreme Unction’ became common only at a considerably later epoch. It was in all probability suggested by its being the last in order of the unctions a man was likely to receive, but no doubt the association of the Unction with the Viaticum and approaching death made the term seem speci-ally appropriate. LITERATURE.— The fullest and most recent discussion of the subject from the Roman standpoint is that of J. Kern, de Sacramento Extremoe Unctionis Tractatus Dogmaticus, Re-gensburg, 1907, a treatise that has been largely utilized by P. J. Toner, in the Cath. Encycl. v. 716– 730. An excellently condensed summary of the historical aspects of the case is given by J. de Guibert, s. v. ‘ Extrème Onction,’ in the Dict. apol. de la foi catholique, i. 1868– 1872. See also A. Tan-querey, Synopsis Theol. Dogmat. Specialist, Tournai, 1906, ii. 567– 589; C. Pesch, Proelectiones Dogmaticoe3, Freiburg, 1909, vii. 249– 281; Wilhelm- Scannell, Manual of Catholic Theology, London, 1898, ii. 485– 493; Lejay, in RHLR x. [ 1905] 606– 610; F. Probst, Sakramente und Sakramentalien, Tübingen, 1872, p. 373 ff.; M. Heimbucher, Die heilige Oelung, Regensburg, 1888; I. Schmitz, de Effectibus Sacr. Extremoe Unctionis, Freiburg, 1893; M. Chardon, Hist. des sacrements, Paris, 1745; J. Pohle, Lehrbuch der Dogmatik3, Paderborn, 1907, iii. 523– 548; E. Martène, de Antiquis Ecclesioe Eitibus, Venice, 1788, i. 296– 350; W. McDonald, in Irish Theol. Quarterly, 1907, pp. 330– 345. As regards the Orthodox Greek Church, see A. v. Maltzew, Sakramente, Berlin, 1898, ccexxiii. and 450– 553; Petrovskij, Hist. of the Akoluthia of the Prayer- Oil, Christianskoje Ctenje, 1903 ( Russ.); Rhalles, On Penance and the Prayer- Oil, Athens, 1905 ( Greek); Jacquemier, ‘ L’Extrème Onction chez les Grecs,’ in Echos d’Orient, ii. Apr.- May, 1899. Of writers unsympathetic to the Roman view may be men-tioned the important work of F. W. Puller, The Anointing of the Sick in Scripture and Tradition, London, 1904; J. B. Mayor, The Epistle of St. James3, London, 1910, p. 370 ff.; W. E. Scudamore, in DCA ii. 2000; and Kattenbusch, in PRE3 xiv. 304– 311. HERBERT THURSTON. FABI AN SOCIETY FA BI A N SOCI E T Y.— 1. Origin and aims.— The Fabian Society, a small but influential body of English Socialists, was founded in 1884. At that time began the revival of Socialism in England which was attributable mainly to two influences. The teaching of Karl Marx was becom-ing popularized, chiefly through the exertions of French and German refugees; while the crusade of Henry George, whose Progress and Poverty ( 1880) had a remarkable circulation in England, led to the formation of a number of small societ-ies, some of which carried his doctrines much further than he had himself intended, and devel-oped into Socialist organizations. Within three years of one another there were established the Social Democratic Federation, the Socialist League, and the Fabian Society. The first of these was, and remains, saturated with the spirit of Marx, and has had little influence in practical affairs. The League carried on a vigorous agitation for a few years, under the inspiration of William Morris; but it belonged properly to Anarchism, and soon disappeared. The Fabian Society, from the outset, rejected much of the economic teaching of Marx, and very soon discarded also certain Anarchist tendencies which were manifest in its earliest publications. It seems to have owed more to George than to Marx, but its leaders were young men of exceptional capacity, like Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw, who combined with propa-gandist zeal an originality and a lack of reverence for authority which soon gave to the Society a distinctive position in the Socialist movement. Professor Thomas Davidson had gathered around him in London a little group of earnest men who met in one another’s houses, and, under the name of the ‘ Fellowship of the New Life,’ sought to cultivate perfection of individual character. A schism in this Fellowship was the origin of the F Fabian Society, when the Socialist section became an independent group and adopted its name as descriptive of its method of action. Accepting the desirability of progress towards Socialism, it concentrated attention upon the manner of achieving that end, and quickly purged itself of the revolutionary attitude which characterized the other Socialist organizations. Socialism could not be attained by a catastrophic class- war, but by gradual adaptation and development of existing institutions through legislative, constitutional, and peaceful action. Moreover, it was unnecessary to wait until the majority of the people placed themselves under the Socialist banner; a small body of zealous and enlightened men, who had made clear to themselves the next steps needed towards the Socialist goal, might influence all parties in that direction. Hence the Society did not organize a political party, but sought to permeate the existing parties and to work out, in a form adapted to English conditions, the administrative changes which would lead in the direction of Socialism. An open Socialist campaign in politics appeared to offer little chance of suc-cess, and individualism could not be defeated by any single encounter; therefore it was thought that more could be achieved by indirect action, by working as a leaven in existing parties, by concentrating upon a few changes which would command wide support outside the Socialist ranks, but which led in the desired direction. While thus remaining thoroughly Socialistic in its aims, its method was of a strictly practical, and even op-portunist, kind. To its members it gave absolute freedom to choose any means they thought fit for the permeation of all parties and schools of thought; and, though it has latterly shared in establishing the Labour Party, it still has members who belong to the Liberal Party both within and And— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi << P a g e > > < < V i e w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index << P a g e > > < < V i e w >>
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