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EARTH, EARTH- GODS 127

editor James Hastings
EARTH, EARTH- GODS 127 Singavra, surmounted by the ruins of a temple, which popular belief declares to be the original Dwarka where Krsna reigned, and whence he transferred himself to the new Dwarka in Okha-mandal. Here are many sacred spots which have their counterparts at modern Dwarka. The temple at the latter place is situated on the north bank of the Gomati creek, and its erection is ascribed by some to Vajranabha, grandson of Krsna; while others assert that it was built in a single night by supernatural agency. It is on the plan of all ancient Hindu temples, containing a shrine, a spacious audience- hall, the roof of which is supported by sixty columns of granite and sandstone, and a conical spire 150 feet in height. The body of the temple and the spire are elaborately carved from base to pinnacle, but internally they are character-ized by excessive plainness and simplicity of style. The figure of Ganapati, or Ganeśa, carved over the entrance door, indicates a dedication to Śiva, which makes it difficult to assign the original building to the Vaisnava cult of Krsna. LITERATURE.— F. S. Growse, Mathura, a District Memoir3, Allahabad, 1883, p. 65 f.; Bombay Gazetteer, viii. 267 ff., 552; Vishnu Purana, bk. v. ch. 23 ff., tr. H. H. Wilson, 1840, v. 53 ff. W. CROOKE. DYAUS .— Dyaus plays no ro ˆ le of importance in Vedic mythology. The more intensively felt activ-ity of gods like Agni and Indra probably threw into shade the personification of the heavenly vault. All that the Rigveda says of him has been collected by Macdonell in his Ved. Myth. § 11. Though he is often mentioned and styled ‘ father,’ the father of Agni, Parjanya, Surya, and especi-ally of the goddess of Dawn, there is no single hymn addressed to him. He is generally invoked along with Prthivi as Dyavaprthivi or Dyava-ksama, etc. In the Nivid, or solemn formula in-ideas as these survive in higher mythologies— Se-mitic, Egyptian, Greek, Hindu— though parallel with these more philosophic views prevailed. 1 2. Origin of the earth.— Man’s speculations did not limit themselves to the form of the earth; he busied himself also with the problem of its origin, and the various solutions of that problem are found with wonderful similarity amongst widely separated peoples. In some cases direct creation by a divinity seems to be asserted. Thus in the sacred myths of the Quichés, preserved in the Popol Vuh, it is said that in the beginning there existed Divine beings called ‘ they that give life.’ They spoke the word ‘ Earth,’ and earth came into existence. An old hymn of the Dinka of the Upper Nile tells how, ‘ at the beginning,’ Dengdit ( on whom see ERE iv. 707 f.), a god dwelling in heaven, made all things. 2 Similarly a native hymn from the Leeward Islands tells of Toivi who ‘ abode in the void. No earth, no sky, no men. He became the universe.’ 3 So, too, a hymn of the Zuñis describes Awonawilona, the Creator, forming everything by thinking ‘ outward in space.’ 4 But, generally speaking, where the making of the earth by a god is referred to, it is rather the framing of existing matter than creation that is meant. Thus some Australian tribes speak of Bunjil going over the earth, cutting it with his knife in many places, and thus forming creeks, rivers, valleys, and hills. 5 As man himself shaped 1 See artt. on COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY; Warren, The Earliest Cosmologies, New York, 1909; Jensen, Kosmologie der Babylonier, Strassburg, 1890. 2 Lejean, RDM, 1862, p. 760. 3 Lang, Making of Religion, London, 1898, p. 275. 4 Cushing, 13 RBEW, 1896, p. 379. 5 Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, Melbourne, 1878, i. 423. serted in the Dyavaprthiviya hymns, which form part of the Vaiśvadevaśastra of the soma sacri-fices, they are called father and mother, bull and cow— he, the dyaus, being rich in seed, she in milk ( Śaòkh. Śrauta S. viii. 19). The small importance attached to him in the hymns is reflected by the ritual, which rarely mentions offerings bestowed on him apart from his female partner. Together with her he receives his share in the animal and soma and other sacrifices ( cf. Ś. Śr. S. iii. 12. 3, vi. 11. 7, viii. 3. 11, xiv. 6. 3, etc.). It is well known that Dyaus as name and as deity goes back to the Aryan period, and is re-lated to the Z@ ýς of the Greeks, the Latin Juppiter, and also to the German Zio- T ˆ yr, if the latter word is not better combined with deva, as some schol-ars assert. Though, for want of proofs, he cannot be said to have been a very important or character-istic god of the Aryan pantheon, the mere fact that there was such a god in those times of remotest antiquity is a striking argument against the exag-gerations of the one- sided ancestor theory. It was formerly generally supposed that Varuna was a synonym of Dyaus, or developed from an epithet of Dyaus into an independent deity of Heaven. This opinion, though still upheld by scholars of distinction, has fallen under suspicion, as it does not answer all objections brought forward against it: and in its place Oldenberg ( Religion des Veda, Berlin, 1894, pp. 48– 50, 193, 287) and the present writer ( Ved. Mythologie, Breslau, 1891– 1902, iii. 45– 52; so also Hardy, Vedisch- brahmanische Periode, Münster, 1893, pp. 47 ff.) have put forward the moon theory for Varuna. LITERATURE.— A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, Strassburg, 1897, § 11 ( where the reader will find all the earlier literature); L. v. Schröder, WZKM xix. [ 1905] 1 ff. A. HILLEBRANDT. E E A R T H, E A R T H- GODS.— Man’s ideas con-cerning the earth may be divided into three class-es— cosmological, mythical, and religious. In some cases these mingle strangely; and, while man thinks of the earth as a created or artificially formed thing, he also regards it as more or less alive. 1. Form of the earth.— The cosmological ideas entertained by various peoples were a mythico- sci-entific deduction from man’s observation of what he saw around him. In no case had he any con-ception of the extent of the earth. To him it was merely the district in which he lived. He saw the sea, and believed that it encircled the earth like a vast river. Earth was usually thought of as a flat disk or oblong box floating on the ocean, while the heavens were regarded as a kind of dome, stretch-ing above the earth and resting upon it or upon the waters, or propped up by poles or pillars. Such beliefs are found among lower races— Australians, Eskimo, the wild tribes of the Malay Peninsula, the Ewe of W. Africa, and others. 1 In some cases the surface of the earth covers an under world, accessible from various points. 2 Frequently, too, the earth is supposed to rest on pillars, or on a tree, or on the body of a giant or hero, or a god or gods, or on a huge animal. 3 Such primitive 1 Howitt, 426 f.; Rink, Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, London, 1875, p. 37; Skeat- Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, London, 1906, ii. 239, 293, 355; Ellis, Ewe- speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, London, 1890, p. 30. 2 Rink, 37; Man, JAI xii. [ 1882] 101 ( Andaman Islanders). 3 Keane, Man Past and Present, Cambridge, 1899, p. 421; Tylor, PC4, 1903, i. 364 f.; cf. ERE i. 491b.And— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi P  a g e      V i e w Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index   P a g e      V i e w

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EARTH, EARTH- GODS 127 Singavra, surmounted by the ruins of a temple, which popular belief declares to be the original Dwarka where Krsna reigned, and whence he transferred himself to the new Dwarka in Okha-mandal. Here are many sacred spots which have their counterparts at modern Dwarka. The temple at the latter place is situated on the north bank of the Gomati creek, and its erection is ascribed by some to Vajranabha, grandson of Krsna; while others assert that it was built in a single night by supernatural agency. It is on the plan of all ancient Hindu temples, containing a shrine, a spacious audience- hall, the roof of which is supported by sixty columns of granite and sandstone, and a conical spire 150 feet in height. The body of the temple and the spire are elaborately carved from base to pinnacle, but internally they are character-ized by excessive plainness and simplicity of style. The figure of Ganapati, or Ganeśa, carved over the entrance door, indicates a dedication to Śiva, which makes it difficult to assign the original building to the Vaisnava cult of Krsna. LITERATURE.— F. S. Growse, Mathura, a District Memoir3, Allahabad, 1883, p. 65 f.; Bombay Gazetteer, viii. 267 ff., 552; Vishnu Purana, bk. v. ch. 23 ff., tr. H. H. Wilson, 1840, v. 53 ff. W. CROOKE. DYAUS .— Dyaus plays no ro ˆ le of importance in Vedic mythology. The more intensively felt activ-ity of gods like Agni and Indra probably threw into shade the personification of the heavenly vault. All that the Rigveda says of him has been collected by Macdonell in his Ved. Myth. § 11. Though he is often mentioned and styled ‘ father,’ the father of Agni, Parjanya, Surya, and especi-ally of the goddess of Dawn, there is no single hymn addressed to him. He is generally invoked along with Prthivi as Dyavaprthivi or Dyava-ksama, etc. In the Nivid, or solemn formula in-ideas as these survive in higher mythologies— Se-mitic, Egyptian, Greek, Hindu— though parallel with these more philosophic views prevailed. 1 2. Origin of the earth.— Man’s speculations did not limit themselves to the form of the earth; he busied himself also with the problem of its origin, and the various solutions of that problem are found with wonderful similarity amongst widely separated peoples. In some cases direct creation by a divinity seems to be asserted. Thus in the sacred myths of the Quichés, preserved in the Popol Vuh, it is said that in the beginning there existed Divine beings called ‘ they that give life.’ They spoke the word ‘ Earth,’ and earth came into existence. An old hymn of the Dinka of the Upper Nile tells how, ‘ at the beginning,’ Dengdit ( on whom see ERE iv. 707 f.), a god dwelling in heaven, made all things. 2 Similarly a native hymn from the Leeward Islands tells of Toivi who ‘ abode in the void. No earth, no sky, no men. He became the universe.’ 3 So, too, a hymn of the Zuñis describes Awonawilona, the Creator, forming everything by thinking ‘ outward in space.’ 4 But, generally speaking, where the making of the earth by a god is referred to, it is rather the framing of existing matter than creation that is meant. Thus some Australian tribes speak of Bunjil going over the earth, cutting it with his knife in many places, and thus forming creeks, rivers, valleys, and hills. 5 As man himself shaped 1 See artt. on COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY; Warren, The Earliest Cosmologies, New York, 1909; Jensen, Kosmologie der Babylonier, Strassburg, 1890. 2 Lejean, RDM, 1862, p. 760. 3 Lang, Making of Religion, London, 1898, p. 275. 4 Cushing, 13 RBEW, 1896, p. 379. 5 Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, Melbourne, 1878, i. 423. serted in the Dyavaprthiviya hymns, which form part of the Vaiśvadevaśastra of the soma sacri-fices, they are called father and mother, bull and cow— he, the dyaus, being rich in seed, she in milk ( Śaòkh. Śrauta S. viii. 19). The small importance attached to him in the hymns is reflected by the ritual, which rarely mentions offerings bestowed on him apart from his female partner. Together with her he receives his share in the animal and soma and other sacrifices ( cf. Ś. Śr. S. iii. 12. 3, vi. 11. 7, viii. 3. 11, xiv. 6. 3, etc.). It is well known that Dyaus as name and as deity goes back to the Aryan period, and is re-lated to the Z@ ýς of the Greeks, the Latin Juppiter, and also to the German Zio- T ˆ yr, if the latter word is not better combined with deva, as some schol-ars assert. Though, for want of proofs, he cannot be said to have been a very important or character-istic god of the Aryan pantheon, the mere fact that there was such a god in those times of remotest antiquity is a striking argument against the exag-gerations of the one- sided ancestor theory. It was formerly generally supposed that Varuna was a synonym of Dyaus, or developed from an epithet of Dyaus into an independent deity of Heaven. This opinion, though still upheld by scholars of distinction, has fallen under suspicion, as it does not answer all objections brought forward against it: and in its place Oldenberg ( Religion des Veda, Berlin, 1894, pp. 48– 50, 193, 287) and the present writer ( Ved. Mythologie, Breslau, 1891– 1902, iii. 45– 52; so also Hardy, Vedisch- brahmanische Periode, Münster, 1893, pp. 47 ff.) have put forward the moon theory for Varuna. LITERATURE.— A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology, Strassburg, 1897, § 11 ( where the reader will find all the earlier literature); L. v. Schröder, WZKM xix. [ 1905] 1 ff. A. HILLEBRANDT. E E A R T H, E A R T H- GODS.— Man’s ideas con-cerning the earth may be divided into three class-es— cosmological, mythical, and religious. In some cases these mingle strangely; and, while man thinks of the earth as a created or artificially formed thing, he also regards it as more or less alive. 1. Form of the earth.— The cosmological ideas entertained by various peoples were a mythico- sci-entific deduction from man’s observation of what he saw around him. In no case had he any con-ception of the extent of the earth. To him it was merely the district in which he lived. He saw the sea, and believed that it encircled the earth like a vast river. Earth was usually thought of as a flat disk or oblong box floating on the ocean, while the heavens were regarded as a kind of dome, stretch-ing above the earth and resting upon it or upon the waters, or propped up by poles or pillars. Such beliefs are found among lower races— Australians, Eskimo, the wild tribes of the Malay Peninsula, the Ewe of W. Africa, and others. 1 In some cases the surface of the earth covers an under world, accessible from various points. 2 Frequently, too, the earth is supposed to rest on pillars, or on a tree, or on the body of a giant or hero, or a god or gods, or on a huge animal. 3 Such primitive 1 Howitt, 426 f.; Rink, Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, London, 1875, p. 37; Skeat- Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, London, 1906, ii. 239, 293, 355; Ellis, Ewe- speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, London, 1890, p. 30. 2 Rink, 37; Man, JAI xii. [ 1882] 101 ( Andaman Islanders). 3 Keane, Man Past and Present, Cambridge, 1899, p. 421; Tylor, PC4, 1903, i. 364 f.; cf. ERE i. 491b. And— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi << P a g e > > < < V i e w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index << P a g e > > < < V i e w >>
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