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226 There is also a cow-

editor James Hastings
226 There is also a cow- heaven, Goloka, the resi-dence of Surabhi. Once the mother of cows prac-tised austerities, and so pleased Brahma by her freedom from cupidity that he granted her im-mortality and assigned her as residence a region above the three worlds, the famous Goloka, while her daughters live among men. In another account, 1 however, Surabhi is said to dwell in Rasätala, the lowest region in the nether world, and to have for daughters the Dikpalis, or goddesses presiding over the heavenly quarters. The cow- heaven, Goloka, is frequently mentioned in the epics and the Puranas. It is described as a kind of paradise, a most beautiful place of the greatest splendour and hap-piness, which can be attained only by the most pious and virtuous, especially by givers of cows and by their worshippers. For the cow became the centre of a peculiar worship, with proper mantras ( Mahabharata, xiii. 80. 1– 3, 78. 24f.) and rites. 2 The devotees had to recite the names of the cows, and to bow their heads in reverence to them ( ib. 78. 16), and they were enjoined to subsist on the five products of the cow, to bathe, using cow dung at the time, etc. For some religious purposes the devotee has to live and to sleep among cows in a cow- pen, or to follow a cow everywhere, as did Dilipa in the story told in the second book of the Raghuvaðśa. Lastly, attention may be called to the story according to which Krsna, one of the most popu-lar gods of India, passed his youth among cow-herds and became the lover of the gopis, their daughters, especially of the lovely Radha. This fact illustrates the high reputation which resulted from the connexion with cows, since even herdsmen were thought the fit guardians and companions of the highest god. Reverence for the cow has not diminished in modern times. 3 It is well known that the Hindus of the present day are filled with horror at the slaughter of the cow, which is therefore prohibited in native States under treaties with the English. LITERATURE.— The literature is given in the article. H. JACOBI. COYO T EROS.— The Coyoteros are a tribal division of the Apaches ( q. v.) said by Drake ( Indian Tribes of the United States, Philadelphia, 1884, i. 424) to have been the largest and fiercest of all the Apache tribes, although, owing to the indiscriminate method in which tribal names have been applied, it is difficult to make certain that other tribes are not included in the estimate of its size. The original home of the Coyoteros was on the head- waters of the Gila, between that river and San Carlos; but they were of nomadic habits, and ranged through Arizona and western New Mexico. Geographically, they are divided into two groups— Pinal Coyoteros and White Mountain Coyoteros. The greater number of them are now located on the San Carlos reservation, with other tribes of the Apaches. They took a prominent part in the rebellion caused by the discontent which followed when the Apaches were moved from their tribal grounds to a reservation. The Spanish name Coyotero is said to have been given them on account of the fact that they subsisted partly on the flesh of coyotes, or prairie wolves ( Hardy, Travels in the Interior of Mexico, London, 1829, p. 430, quoted by Bancroft, NR i. 474). Ruxton ( Journ. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., 1st ser., ii. 95 [ 1850]) calls them coyoteros, or ‘ wolf- eat-ers.’ It is suggested, however, that the name may have been derived from their roving and unsettled habits ( Hodge, Handbook, p. 356). Among the 1 Mahabharata, iii. 102. For other references to Goloka, see Böhtlingk- Roth, s. v. 2 Cf., further, Hillebrandt, Rituallit. (= GIAP iii. 2), Strassburg, 1897, p. 83. 3 See the very full discussion of this subject in PR ii. 226 ff. Tonto Apaches they are known as Paláwi or Pawílkna ( Gatschet, Yuma- Spr. i. [ 1883] 371, 411; ZE xv. 123), while the Navaho name for them was Silká, On the mountain’ ( ten Kate, Synonymie, Amsterdam, 1884, p. 6). In culture they did not differ materially from the other Apaches. Among the Apache tribes them-selves, distinctions were recognized in the char-acter of the weapons, the distinguishing mark of the Coyoteros being the method of winging the arrows. These bore three feathers on the shaft, which was of reed, finished with hard wood and tipped with iron or flint ( Cremony, Life among the Apaches2, San Francisco, 1877, p. 103). Like other members of the Athapascan linguistic stock, they readily assimilated the culture of neighbour-ing tribes; and, just as the Lipan followed the Comanche, the Pinal Coyoteros showed traces of Pueblo customs. Their nomadic habits, as well as the character of the country, were unfavourable to any great advance in civilization, while their habitat in Sierra Bianca was peculiarly adapted to the raids by which, like other Apaches, they ac-quired food and wealth. Their captives were held as slaves until ransomed or sold. The Pinalenos earned an unenviable notoriety by their success in this tribal pursuit ( see Bartlett, Personal Nar-rative of Travels in New Mexico, New York, 1854). Apaches are divided into clans, but these are not totemic. Their names are taken, not from animals, but from natural features of their locality. Affilia-tion of the clans in different tribes is recognized. Among the Coyoteros, clans have been recorded, counterparts of which have been found among other Apache divisions and also among the Nava-hos; while Bourke ( JAFL iii. [ 1890] 112) records a number of identifications between the White Mountain Apaches and the Pinal Coyoteros. The Apaches displayed little care in the dis-posal of their dead. The method followed by the Coyoteros is described by H. C. Yarrow (‘ A Further Contribution to the Study of the Mortuary Customs of the North American Indians,’. 1 RBËW, 1881, p. 111 f.), who says they take the least possible trouble. A hole in the ground made by a tree stump or a stone is found, and into this they cram the body, partially wrapped up. The stone or stump is then rolled back. They mourn for thirty days, uttering loud lamentations at intervals; but, he adds, unless they are reminded of it, this is fre-quently forgotten. LITERATURE.— References to the Coyoteros are scattered through the literature dealing with the Apaches ( see above, and at end of art. APACHES, in vol. i.); cf. also especially footnotes, passim, in Bancroft, NR; and F. W. Hodge, Hand book of American Indians (= Bull. 30 BE, Washington, 1907), pt. 1, under ‘ Apache’ and ‘ Coyotero.’ E. N. FALLAIZE. CR E AT ION.— I. The conception in primi-tive heathenism.— The principle of causality is a necessary category of thought. The desire for knowledge of the nature and origin of things is inborn. It stimulates the eager wonder and prompts the clamorous questions of every child and savage. Primitive man is philosophical in so far as he does not take things as a matter of course, as he makes the phenomena around him objects of reflexion, as he is keen to understand how everything came about. He is mentally a child, with a child’s vague fears of the unknown, a child’s love of a thrilling tale, and a child’s readiness to be satisfied with any explanation, however grotesque and absurd, of the things which arouse his interest. Curiosity and credulity are the characteristics of the primi-tive mind, and the roots of all mythology, which has not inaptly been called ‘ primitive metaphysics.’ At the same time it has to be remembered that the childhood of the race included the maturity of the individual, and in not a few creation- myths COYOTEROS— CREATIONAnd— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi   P a g e      V i e w Search | F i n d  | H o m e  | Index   P a g e      V i e w

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226 There is also a cow- heaven, Goloka, the resi-dence of Surabhi. Once the mother of cows prac-tised austerities, and so pleased Brahma by her freedom from cupidity that he granted her im-mortality and assigned her as residence a region above the three worlds, the famous Goloka, while her daughters live among men. In another account, 1 however, Surabhi is said to dwell in Rasätala, the lowest region in the nether world, and to have for daughters the Dikpalis, or goddesses presiding over the heavenly quarters. The cow- heaven, Goloka, is frequently mentioned in the epics and the Puranas. It is described as a kind of paradise, a most beautiful place of the greatest splendour and hap-piness, which can be attained only by the most pious and virtuous, especially by givers of cows and by their worshippers. For the cow became the centre of a peculiar worship, with proper mantras ( Mahabharata, xiii. 80. 1– 3, 78. 24f.) and rites. 2 The devotees had to recite the names of the cows, and to bow their heads in reverence to them ( ib. 78. 16), and they were enjoined to subsist on the five products of the cow, to bathe, using cow dung at the time, etc. For some religious purposes the devotee has to live and to sleep among cows in a cow- pen, or to follow a cow everywhere, as did Dilipa in the story told in the second book of the Raghuvaðśa. Lastly, attention may be called to the story according to which Krsna, one of the most popu-lar gods of India, passed his youth among cow-herds and became the lover of the gopis, their daughters, especially of the lovely Radha. This fact illustrates the high reputation which resulted from the connexion with cows, since even herdsmen were thought the fit guardians and companions of the highest god. Reverence for the cow has not diminished in modern times. 3 It is well known that the Hindus of the present day are filled with horror at the slaughter of the cow, which is therefore prohibited in native States under treaties with the English. LITERATURE.— The literature is given in the article. H. JACOBI. COYO T EROS.— The Coyoteros are a tribal division of the Apaches ( q. v.) said by Drake ( Indian Tribes of the United States, Philadelphia, 1884, i. 424) to have been the largest and fiercest of all the Apache tribes, although, owing to the indiscriminate method in which tribal names have been applied, it is difficult to make certain that other tribes are not included in the estimate of its size. The original home of the Coyoteros was on the head- waters of the Gila, between that river and San Carlos; but they were of nomadic habits, and ranged through Arizona and western New Mexico. Geographically, they are divided into two groups— Pinal Coyoteros and White Mountain Coyoteros. The greater number of them are now located on the San Carlos reservation, with other tribes of the Apaches. They took a prominent part in the rebellion caused by the discontent which followed when the Apaches were moved from their tribal grounds to a reservation. The Spanish name Coyotero is said to have been given them on account of the fact that they subsisted partly on the flesh of coyotes, or prairie wolves ( Hardy, Travels in the Interior of Mexico, London, 1829, p. 430, quoted by Bancroft, NR i. 474). Ruxton ( Journ. Ethnol. Soc. Lond., 1st ser., ii. 95 [ 1850]) calls them coyoteros, or ‘ wolf- eat-ers.’ It is suggested, however, that the name may have been derived from their roving and unsettled habits ( Hodge, Handbook, p. 356). Among the 1 Mahabharata, iii. 102. For other references to Goloka, see Böhtlingk- Roth, s. v. 2 Cf., further, Hillebrandt, Rituallit. (= GIAP iii. 2), Strassburg, 1897, p. 83. 3 See the very full discussion of this subject in PR ii. 226 ff. Tonto Apaches they are known as Paláwi or Pawílkna ( Gatschet, Yuma- Spr. i. [ 1883] 371, 411; ZE xv. 123), while the Navaho name for them was Silká, On the mountain’ ( ten Kate, Synonymie, Amsterdam, 1884, p. 6). In culture they did not differ materially from the other Apaches. Among the Apache tribes them-selves, distinctions were recognized in the char-acter of the weapons, the distinguishing mark of the Coyoteros being the method of winging the arrows. These bore three feathers on the shaft, which was of reed, finished with hard wood and tipped with iron or flint ( Cremony, Life among the Apaches2, San Francisco, 1877, p. 103). Like other members of the Athapascan linguistic stock, they readily assimilated the culture of neighbour-ing tribes; and, just as the Lipan followed the Comanche, the Pinal Coyoteros showed traces of Pueblo customs. Their nomadic habits, as well as the character of the country, were unfavourable to any great advance in civilization, while their habitat in Sierra Bianca was peculiarly adapted to the raids by which, like other Apaches, they ac-quired food and wealth. Their captives were held as slaves until ransomed or sold. The Pinalenos earned an unenviable notoriety by their success in this tribal pursuit ( see Bartlett, Personal Nar-rative of Travels in New Mexico, New York, 1854). Apaches are divided into clans, but these are not totemic. Their names are taken, not from animals, but from natural features of their locality. Affilia-tion of the clans in different tribes is recognized. Among the Coyoteros, clans have been recorded, counterparts of which have been found among other Apache divisions and also among the Nava-hos; while Bourke ( JAFL iii. [ 1890] 112) records a number of identifications between the White Mountain Apaches and the Pinal Coyoteros. The Apaches displayed little care in the dis-posal of their dead. The method followed by the Coyoteros is described by H. C. Yarrow (‘ A Further Contribution to the Study of the Mortuary Customs of the North American Indians,’. 1 RBËW, 1881, p. 111 f.), who says they take the least possible trouble. A hole in the ground made by a tree stump or a stone is found, and into this they cram the body, partially wrapped up. The stone or stump is then rolled back. They mourn for thirty days, uttering loud lamentations at intervals; but, he adds, unless they are reminded of it, this is fre-quently forgotten. LITERATURE.— References to the Coyoteros are scattered through the literature dealing with the Apaches ( see above, and at end of art. APACHES, in vol. i.); cf. also especially footnotes, passim, in Bancroft, NR; and F. W. Hodge, Hand book of American Indians (= Bull. 30 BE, Washington, 1907), pt. 1, under ‘ Apache’ and ‘ Coyotero.’ E. N. FALLAIZE. CR E AT ION.— I. The conception in primi-tive heathenism.— The principle of causality is a necessary category of thought. The desire for knowledge of the nature and origin of things is inborn. It stimulates the eager wonder and prompts the clamorous questions of every child and savage. Primitive man is philosophical in so far as he does not take things as a matter of course, as he makes the phenomena around him objects of reflexion, as he is keen to understand how everything came about. He is mentally a child, with a child’s vague fears of the unknown, a child’s love of a thrilling tale, and a child’s readiness to be satisfied with any explanation, however grotesque and absurd, of the things which arouse his interest. Curiosity and credulity are the characteristics of the primi-tive mind, and the roots of all mythology, which has not inaptly been called ‘ primitive metaphysics.’ At the same time it has to be remembered that the childhood of the race included the maturity of the individual, and in not a few creation- myths COYOTEROS— CREATION And— Art | Art— Bun | Bur— Con | Con— Dra | Dra— Fic | Fic— Hyk | Hym— Lib | Lif— Mul | Mun— Phr | Pic— Sac | Sac— Sud | Suf— Zwi << P a g e > > < < V i e w >> Search | F i n d | H o m e | Index << P a g e > > < < V i e w >>
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