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1.0 Preliminaries 31

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
1.0 Preliminaries 31 type of Hebrew, corresponding in number to those which have vanished. This comparison is, however, inaccurate, for the consonants assumed to have ex­isted in Proto- Semitic are all phonemes, whereas of the consonants occurring in TH and in BH only 23 are phonemes, to which six allophones have been added ( in the b g d k p t group). In SH there are only twenty phonemes, of which only one — b / l/ — appears in two allophones, the  soft [ l] and the  hard [ l] ( for the symbols, see 0.1.2). Thus, the main difference between SH and TH/ BH is the lack of three phonemes: / h/, / h/ and / s/, and of six allophones: soft b, g, d, k, and t and hard p. Note: In the following comparative table the consonants of TH are given in Hebrew letters flanked on the right by SH consonants and on the left by those of Proto- Semitic of which TH and SH are offspring. In Hebrew grammar books, the consonant group h, h,  are usually referred to by means of a single term, gutturals. We, too, shall do so wherever there is no need for a precise description of their place of articulation, as in the morphology. 1.1.2 Table of Consonants Place of articulation Plosive voiced Plosive unvoiced Nasal Lateral Trill Fricative voiced Fricative unvoiced Semi-consonant Labial b a b P 9 - m a m w 1 w Labiodental - A - - Af Interdental d l - t f i - Dental dTd t n t η 2 η I M r 1 r ζ τ ζ S 0 s Alveolar § s Palato- alveolar s fr- Alveolo- velar d - - t o t - - ( !) ζ - - s x s Palatal Velar k3k g- h 5 - Uvular q p q Laryngeal h n - Glottal h n - 1.1.3 The table reflects the usual pronunciation of SH consonants today. Nev­ertheless, on occasion, under undefined conditions, entirely by chance and from different readers, variations of the sounds described can be heard, such Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index

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1.0 Preliminaries 31 type of Hebrew, corresponding in number to those which have vanished. This comparison is, however, inaccurate, for the consonants assumed to have ex­isted in Proto- Semitic are all phonemes, whereas of the consonants occurring in TH and in BH only 23 are phonemes, to which six allophones have been added ( in the b g d k p t group). In SH there are only twenty phonemes, of which only one — b / l/ — appears in two allophones, the \\" soft\\" [ l] and the \\" hard\\" [ l] ( for the symbols, see 0.1.2). Thus, the main difference between SH and TH/ BH is the lack of three phonemes: / h/, / h/ and / s/, and of six allophones: soft b, g, d, k, and t and hard p. Note: In the following comparative table the consonants of TH are given in Hebrew letters flanked on the right by SH consonants and on the left by those of Proto- Semitic of which TH and SH are offspring. In Hebrew grammar books, the consonant group h, h, ' are usually referred to by means of a single term, gutturals. We, too, shall do so wherever there is no need for a precise description of their place of articulation, as in the morphology. 1.1.2 Table of Consonants Place of articulation Plosive voiced Plosive unvoiced Nasal Lateral Trill Fricative voiced Fricative unvoiced Semi-consonant Labial b a b P 9 - m a m w 1 w Labiodental - A - - Af Interdental d l - t f i - Dental dTd t n t η 2 η I M r 1 r ζ τ ζ S 0 s Alveolar § s Palato- alveolar s fr- Alveolo- velar d - - t o t - - ( !) ζ - - s x s Palatal Velar k3k g>- h 5 - Uvular q p q Laryngeal h n - Glottal h n - 1.1.3 The table reflects the usual pronunciation of SH consonants today. Nev­ertheless, on occasion, under undefined conditions, entirely by chance and from different readers, variations of the sounds described can be heard, such << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index
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