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30 Phonology between

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
30  Phonology between words such as o^ a/ o^ s indicate that a and s are separate phonemes because a differentiation of meaning depends on the difference between them; similarly, uty/ u*& shows that V and 3 are separate phonemes; ( a) the relation-ship between forms such as o^ a ( Gn 5: 4) / D^ a ( Gn 3: 16) demonstrates that while hard and soft a are indeed separate phones, they cannot distinguish be­tween meanings. Since the two phones belong to a single unit called a pho­neme they are customarily termed allophones of the phoneme / b/. The Hebrew term run  sound, adopted for grammatical use prior to the acceptance of the distinction between  phone and  phoneme, is generally used in a broader sense than the precise definition of  phone, though at­tempts have been made to limit it to the meaning of  phone. In this book the term  sound will serve in the broader sense equivalent to run, and only when the need arises will the more precise terminology be adopted. Similarly, we shall not make use of the symbols differentiating  phone from  phoneme, e. g., [ l] and / l/, to distinguish them from the letter 1, unless such distinctions become vital — for words adduced in Latin letters do not refer to their graphic representation ( since this is in the Hebrew alphabet!); our discussion deals generally with phonemes. In L O T III/ l, 9- 12, the elements of the graphic representation of SH ( and SA) were described. After the evaluation of the phonetic characteristics of the sounds, their phonematic system was deduced. In this book no use will be made of the symbol [ 1] for it is clearly an allophone of / l/ ( see especially 1.1.7). It must not be forgotten that we are describing the tradition of a sacred tongue, a language of ritual, whereas the Samaritan vernacular is Arabic or ( contem­porary) Hebrew. Only the phonemic value of sounds are likely to be preserved in a linguistic tradition like that under consideration in this book, whereas the presenting of the precise phonetic values of these sounds is rather a matter of the Samaritan communities vernacular, e. g., the pronunciation of oao yaskdml yasgdtn ( LOT III/ 2, 83,1. 6). 1.1 Consonants 1.1.1 The total number of consonants and semi- consonants in Hebrew as pre­sented by the Tiberian and Babylonian traditions is twenty- nine, and if we compare them to the total number of assumed consonants in Proto- Semitic, 3 we find the number unchanged, for other consonants have developed in this 3 Regarding the nature of the consonants expressed in Arabic by j, J* — whether in Proto- Semitic they are d  or d, t or t — there are differences of opinion, and this table is not intended to resolve them. Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t

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30 Phonology between words such as o^ a/ o^ s indicate that a and s are separate phonemes because a differentiation of meaning depends on the difference between them; similarly, uty/ u*& shows that V and 3 are separate phonemes; ( a) the relation-ship between forms such as o^ a ( Gn 5: 4) / D^ a ( Gn 3: 16) demonstrates that while hard and soft a are indeed separate phones, they cannot distinguish be­tween meanings. Since the two phones belong to a single unit called a pho­neme they are customarily termed allophones of the phoneme / b/. The Hebrew term run \\" sound,\\" adopted for grammatical use prior to the acceptance of the distinction between \\" phone\\" and \\" phoneme,\\" is generally used in a broader sense than the precise definition of \\" phone,\\" though at­tempts have been made to limit it to the meaning of \\" phone.\\" In this book the term \\" sound\\" will serve in the broader sense equivalent to run, and only when the need arises will the more precise terminology be adopted. Similarly, we shall not make use of the symbols differentiating \\" phone\\" from \\" phoneme,\\" e. g., [ l] and / l/, to distinguish them from the letter 1, unless such distinctions become vital — for words adduced in Latin letters do not refer to their graphic representation ( since this is in the Hebrew alphabet!); our discussion deals generally with phonemes. In L O T III/ l, 9- 12, the elements of the graphic representation of SH ( and SA) were described. After the evaluation of the phonetic characteristics of the sounds, their phonematic system was deduced. In this book no use will be made of the symbol [ 1] for it is clearly an allophone of / l/ ( see especially 1.1.7). It must not be forgotten that we are describing the tradition of a sacred tongue, a language of ritual, whereas the Samaritan vernacular is Arabic or ( contem­porary) Hebrew. Only the phonemic value of sounds are likely to be preserved in a linguistic tradition like that under consideration in this book, whereas the presenting of the precise phonetic values of these sounds is rather a matter of the Samaritan communities vernacular, e. g., the pronunciation of oao\\"' yaskdml yasgdtn ( LOT III/ 2, 83,1. 6). 1.1 Consonants 1.1.1 The total number of consonants and semi- consonants in Hebrew as pre­sented by the Tiberian and Babylonian traditions is twenty- nine, and if we compare them to the total number of assumed consonants in Proto- Semitic, 3 we find the number unchanged, for other consonants have developed in this 3 Regarding the nature of the consonants expressed in Arabic by j>, J* — whether in Proto- Semitic they are d or d, t or t — there are differences of opinion, and this table is not intended to resolve them. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t
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