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5.1. From 1 to 10 307

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
5.1. From 1 to 10 307 5.1.6 The noun yaw in Lv 26: 18 is pronounced seba, and nyawn in Dt 15: 9 is pronounced asseba. However, these are not variants of the numerals yaw and nyaw, but words derived from the root naw, which does not occur in Biblical Hebrew, but is very common in M H and in Aramaic meaning  praise,  ad-vantage,  surplus. Thus, the Samaritan  tradition interprets yaw and nyaw in the above verses as M H naw, nnaw. 5 The  phonological background of such an interpretation is the shift of π  y, ( see 1.1.8), whose antiquity is attested in the reading έξχομολογησεται (= nawn) of the Septuagint in Isa 45: 23. 5.1.7 It is surprising that the distinction between masculine and feminine nouns in the absolute forms of nnaw has been eliminated in SH. It is difficult to posit that a contraction of the diphthong Jy-, Jya( t) led to identical results, as the participle form of r\\ b verbs shows. It seems likely that the source of the merger of those forms is syntactic: the partial dissolution of the distinction between masculine and feminine forms in the the usage of numerals in LSH. On the maintenance of the ancient ä vowel after the a, see 1.5.2.7. 5.1.8 In the SH numerals for nine, the reason for the gemination might appear to be the assimilation of the y to what precedes it, but this is not a common phenomenon ( see 1.5.3.1[ 1]). Perhaps there is some influence here of the SA numeral, where the gemination in the number nine may be easily explained: ywn  * atsa  * assa  * assa ( sometimes written ywx). This phenomenon is known also from the Mandaic Kwny. 6 From  assa ( ywn) are derived SA assa = nywn ( written also nywx) and as* slm = o^ ywn ( o-^ wx), which do not fulfill the phonetic condition — n in contact with w — that leads to gemination. 7  In SH, too, the form assa could have come into being as well, as it did in SA, inde­pendent of Aramaic influence but instead as a derivation from the construct state of ywn, but it did not because the other forms, without sdwa, prevented this. Therefore, it appears that the gemination of w in SH should be explained from within SH: (* it£ a [ TH ywn]  tissa; see 1.5.3.3), and perhaps the exist­ence of gemination in SA contributed to its preservation in SH. 5.1.9 The form  asar nwy may represent a merger of two originally different forms distinct in TH: nwy and  iw? ( which is used in the numbers 11- 19). It may also be that  iwy was originally absent from SH; as is well- known, it has no parallel outside TH, despite being the basis for the feminine form nnwy. 5 See my  Palestinian Aramaic and Samaritan Poetry, 42. 6 See LOT II, 607, where the Mandaic forms Kwny and J^ ny are  treated. 7 The Malüla forms preserve the  stage preceding SA and preceding Mandaic:  etsa = ywn as against tesa nywn, tig* = Oywn. Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t t t

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5.1. From 1 to 10 307 5.1.6 The noun yaw in Lv 26: 18 is pronounced seba, and nyawn in Dt 15: 9 is pronounced asse'ba. However, these are not variants of the numerals yaw and nyaw, but words derived from the root naw, which does not occur in Biblical Hebrew, but is very common in M H and in Aramaic meaning \\" praise,\\" \\" ad-vantage,\\" \\" surplus.\\" Thus, the Samaritan tradition interprets yaw and nyaw in the above verses as M H naw', nnaw'. 5 The phonological background of such an interpretation is the shift of π > y, ( see 1.1.8), whose antiquity is attested in the reading έξχομολογησεται (= naw'n) of the Septuagint in Isa 45: 23. 5.1.7 It is surprising that the distinction between masculine and feminine nouns in the absolute forms of nnaw has been eliminated in SH. It is difficult to posit that a contraction of the diphthong Jy-, Jya( t) led to identical results, as the participle form of r\\\\\\" b verbs shows. It seems likely that the source of the merger of those forms is syntactic: the partial dissolution of the distinction between masculine and feminine forms in the the usage of numerals in LSH. On the maintenance of the ancient ä vowel after the a, see 1.5.2.7. 5.1.8 In the SH numerals for nine, the reason for the gemination might appear to be the assimilation of the y to what precedes it, but this is not a common phenomenon ( see 1.5.3.1[ 1]). Perhaps there is some influence here of the SA numeral, where the gemination in the number nine may be easily explained: ywn > * atsa' > * assa' > * assa ( sometimes written ywx). This phenomenon is known also from the Mandaic Kwny. 6 From assa (< ywn) are derived SA assa = nywn ( written also nywx) and as* slm = o^ ywn ( o-^ wx), which do not fulfill the phonetic condition — n in contact with w — that leads to gemination. 7 In SH, too, the form assa could have come into being as well, as it did in SA, inde­pendent of Aramaic influence but instead as a derivation from the construct state of ywn, but it did not because the other forms, without sdwa, prevented this. Therefore, it appears that the gemination of w in SH should be explained from within SH: (* it£ a [< TH ywn] > tissa; see 1.5.3.3), and perhaps the exist­ence of gemination in SA contributed to its preservation in SH. 5.1.9 The form ' asar nwy may represent a merger of two originally different forms distinct in TH: nwy and \\" iw? ( which is used in the numbers 11- 19). It may also be that \\" iwy was originally absent from SH; as is well- known, it has no parallel outside TH, despite being the basis for the feminine form nnwy. 5 See my \\" Palestinian Aramaic and Samaritan Poetry,\\" 42. 6 See LOT II, 607, where the Mandaic forms Kwny and J^ ny are treated. 7 The Ma'lüla forms preserve the stage preceding SA and preceding Mandaic: etsa' = ywn as against tes'a nywn, tig* = O'ywn. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t t t
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