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2.11 Imperative 187 rom!)

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
2.11 Imperative 187 rom!), and for TH *? ym ( Ex 8: 1), we find wälli ( SP rf? ym). Note that the impera­tive of the verb xnp is qeri ( Dt 31: 14) ( and jmp [ Ex 2: 20] is qerin), and of ή » is meli ( Gn 44: 1) or mälli ( Gn 29: 27), even though in all other forms they follow the patterns of other Ill- guttural verbs ( see 2.2.3.0). That the form qerin fol­lows the nnb class is attested by the form semän \\ ym ( Gn 4: 23). It should also be noted that xnpn ( SP Gn 24: 12), the written form indicating Hifil imperative, is pronounced iqra. The form  änuliy ( Nu 21: 17), by analogy to ^ y, can be identified as an imperative, and one may find an ä vowel in the imperative ( see 2.11.2), but SAV reads it as perfect: 2.12- 2.14 Verbal Nouns 2.12 Active Participle 2.12.1 In TH, two types of active participles occur in Qal: one follows the byte pattern, while the other shares the form of the 3rd. masc. sing. perfect, i. e., byB or Vys ( infrequently), and in the ry class forms such as op and αψ. The type that takes the by*\\ B pattern is a legacy from the Proto- Semitic qätil, found in Akkadian, Arabic, and Aramaic as the sole participial form. ( Contrast Hebrew op with Aramaic οκρ and Arabic ^ U). Despite the few deviant forms that may be found in Biblical Hebrew, an original division can be clearly recognized between active verbs on the one hand, which have participles of the by\\ B pattern, and s t a t i v e verbs on the other, which have participles of the perfect 3rd masc. sing, form. This distinction is reflected neatly in the morphological distinction made in Biblical Hebrew between  active and  stative verbs ( see 2.1.1.0.1). That consciousness of this distinction guided ancient speakers of Hebrew can be seen quite clearly in the example of the Nifal participle. In cognate languages such as Akkadian and Arabic, the Nifal stem takes the preformative mu-, similar to the other stems, e. g., Arabic ( 3*& » ) , Akkadian mupparsum ( * munparisum  cut off). It is, thus, very reasonable to assume a Proto- Hebrew Nifal parti­ciple with the preformative &. The lack of this preformative in historical He­brew already in ancient times can only be explained by the fact that the Nifal became a pattern of intransitive or passive verbs. Thus, its participle took the form of the perfect, changing patah to qames according to the general rule; cf. the Qal verb Dion ( Prov 23: 15) as against the noun ( participle/ adjective) DDn. When the ability to distinguish active/ passive and transitive/ intransitive rela­tionships through a vowel within the root ( byB vs. byB, etc.) became obscured, the reason for maintaining a distinction between participles was lost and, thus, doublets came into being, such as: vftb/ täb and nDitf/ n? tf. The byte pattern came to dominate even stative verbs in Biblical Hebrew, such as HDitf ( ι^ ψ), while the Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index

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2.11 Imperative 187 rom!), and for TH *? ym ( Ex 8: 1), we find wälli ( SP rf? ym). Note that the impera­tive of the verb xnp is qeri ( Dt 31: 14) ( and jmp [ Ex 2: 20] is qe'rin), and of ή » is meli ( Gn 44: 1) or mälli ( Gn 29: 27), even though in all other forms they follow the patterns of other Ill- guttural verbs ( see 2.2.3.0). That the form qe'rin fol­lows the nnb class is attested by the form se'män \\\\ ym ( Gn 4: 23). It should also be noted that xnpn ( SP Gn 24: 12), the written form indicating Hifil imperative, is pronounced iqra. The form ' änuliy ( Nu 21: 17), by analogy to ^ y, can be identified as an imperative, and one may find an ä vowel in the imperative ( see 2.11.2), but SAV reads it as perfect: 2.12- 2.14 Verbal Nouns 2.12 Active Participle 2.12.1 In TH, two types of active participles occur in Qal: one follows the byte pattern, while the other shares the form of the 3rd. masc. sing. perfect, i. e., byB or Vys ( infrequently), and in the ry class forms such as op and αψ. The type that takes the by*\\\\ B pattern is a legacy from the Proto- Semitic qätil, found in Akkadian, Arabic, and Aramaic as the sole participial form. ( Contrast Hebrew op with Aramaic οκρ and Arabic ^ U). Despite the few deviant forms that may be found in Biblical Hebrew, an original division can be clearly recognized between active verbs on the one hand, which have participles of the by\\\\ B pattern, and s t a t i v e verbs on the other, which have participles of the perfect 3rd masc. sing, form. This distinction is reflected neatly in the morphological distinction made in Biblical Hebrew between \\" active\\" and \\" stative\\" verbs ( see 2.1.1.0.1). That consciousness of this distinction guided ancient speakers of Hebrew can be seen quite clearly in the example of the Nif'al participle. In cognate languages such as Akkadian and Arabic, the Nifal stem takes the preformative mu-, similar to the other stems, e. g., Arabic ( 3*& » ) , Akkadian mupparsum (< * munparisum \\" cut off\\"). It is, thus, very reasonable to assume a Proto- Hebrew Nif'al parti­ciple with the preformative &. The lack of this preformative in historical He­brew already in ancient times can only be explained by the fact that the Nif'al became a pattern of intransitive or passive verbs. Thus, its participle took the form of the perfect, changing patah to qames according to the general rule; cf. the Qal verb Dion ( Prov 23: 15) as against the noun ( participle/ adjective) DDn. When the ability to distinguish active/ passive and transitive/ intransitive rela­tionships through a vowel within the root ( byB vs. byB, etc.) became obscured, the reason for maintaining a distinction between participles was lost and, thus, doublets came into being, such as: vftb/ täb and nDitf/ n? tf. The byte pattern came to dominate even stative verbs in Biblical Hebrew, such as HDitf ( ι^ ψ'), while the << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index
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