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154 Morphology Whatever

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
154  Morphology Whatever the origins of these verbs, their structure — not  only in Hebrew, but also in Proto- Semitic — must be viewed as triradical, 8 2  since there is no difference between the geminated consonant in a given form of  an y y verb and any other geminated consonant generated in Hebrew by accidental contact. In other words, gemination such as that of the η in nap is no different in the surface form from the gemination of η in  riis, despite their different origins. 2.7.2 In Tiberian Hebrew, a verb belonging to the y y class may behave in any of five ways: a. The second radical is geminated, unless, of course, it is at the end of the word, e. g.,  nfta, niap, iVp, i- icr, iVjr, lapa, ( but npj), etc. b. Both the first radical and the second radical are geminated, e. g., ψι?\\ narr, ιηρη, nmn; the Qal forms in this way are equivalent to the Nifal forms. It is indeed difficult at times to decide with which to identify a given verb; we may generally distinguish them by past tense forms. Note: The form ο& is usually identified by grammarians and lexicogra­phers as Nifal, even in Dt 20: 8. It may be, however, that the form should be classified as Qal, and that its use in Dt 20: 8 should be understood as a transitive verb, the object of which is Dan 1 ? nx, in a fashion similar to the Qal verb aao, which appears in both transitive and intransitive uses. In fact, this is the understanding of that verse in the Septuagint ( which inter­prets: ινα μή δειλιάνη την καρδίαν του άδελφοΰ αύτοΰ) and the Vulgate ( ne pavere faciat). The Samaritan pronunciation of the verb in that verse is yimds, i. e., Hifil of the verb OIB, similar to Dt 1: 28. It has been sug­gested that the verb in Dt 20: 8 should be vocalized oia% but there is no need to emend the text in order to make sense of the syntax. c. The first radical alone is geminated, e. g., τηρπ, lönn, I & T , rum ( * nihhanta). This type primarily, and to a lesser degree type ( b), are known as  the Aramaic type, since Aramaic usually geminates the first radical in this root class. d. No radical is geminated as a rule, but instead: ( 1) the verb follows the ry pattern, as in ηψ αχ, ptfw, ipnn, ηοηπιρ, ( see 2.6.4 above); ( 2) an affix blends in, forming a new  root as in * n ( from nVn [ Isa 63: 19]), nj? aj ( from npnj*), rtoj* ( from nVnj), and w ( from iar*); new roots have indeed been created from such forms in later Hebrew ( v. 2.7.13 below), just as they have from other weak verbs, e. g., the later ] ψ, found in liturgical poetry and meaning  to order, pre­pare, generated from the Biblical ] ΐ?\\ 8 2 Bauer and Leander ( BL, 427) postulate that an y y verb is composed of  a consonant + a vowel + a long consonant,  which is nothing more than a variant formulation of  a geminatedconsonant. Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t

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154 Morphology Whatever the origins of these verbs, their structure — not only in Hebrew, but also in Proto- Semitic — must be viewed as triradical, 8 2 since there is no difference between the geminated consonant in a given form of an y\\" y verb and any other geminated consonant generated in Hebrew by accidental contact. In other words, gemination such as that of the η in nap is no different in the surface form from the gemination of η in ' riis, despite their different origins. 2.7.2 In Tiberian Hebrew, a verb belonging to the y\\" y class may behave in any of five ways: a. The second radical is geminated, unless, of course, it is at the end of the word, e. g., ' nfta, niap, iVp, i- icr, iVjr, lapa, ( but npj), etc. b. Both the first radical and the second radical are geminated, e. g., ψι?\\\\ narr, ιηρη, nmn; the Qal forms in this way are equivalent to the Nifal forms. It is indeed difficult at times to decide with which to identify a given verb; we may generally distinguish them by past tense forms. Note: The form ο&' is usually identified by grammarians and lexicogra­phers as Nif'al, even in Dt 20: 8. It may be, however, that the form should be classified as Qal, and that its use in Dt 20: 8 should be understood as a transitive verb, the object of which is Dan 1 ? nx, in a fashion similar to the Qal verb aao, which appears in both transitive and intransitive uses. In fact, this is the understanding of that verse in the Septuagint ( which inter­prets: ινα μή δειλιάνη την καρδίαν του άδελφοΰ αύτοΰ) and the Vulgate ( ne pavere faciat). The Samaritan pronunciation of the verb in that verse is yimds, i. e., Hifil of the verb OIB, similar to Dt 1: 28. It has been sug­gested that the verb in Dt 20: 8 should be vocalized oia% but there is no need to emend the text in order to make sense of the syntax. c. The first radical alone is geminated, e. g., τηρπ, lönn, I & T , rum (< * nihhanta). This type primarily, and to a lesser degree type ( b), are known as \\" the Aramaic type,\\" since Aramaic usually geminates the first radical in this root class. d. No radical is geminated as a rule, but instead: ( 1) the verb follows the ry pattern, as in ηψ' αχ, ptfw, ipnn, ηοηπιρ, ( see 2.6.4 above); ( 2) an affix blends in, forming a new \\" root\\" as in * n ( from nVn [ Isa 63: 19]), nj? aj ( from np'nj*), rtoj* ( from nVnj), and w ( from iar*); new roots have indeed been created from such forms in later Hebrew ( v. 2.7.13 below), just as they have from other weak verbs, e. g., the later ] ψ, found in liturgical poetry and meaning \\" to order, pre­pare,\\" generated from the Biblical ] ΐ?\\\\ 8 2 Bauer and Leander ( BL, 427) postulate that an y\\" y verb is composed of \\" a consonant + a vowel + a long consonant,\\" which is nothing more than a variant formulation of \\" a geminated consonant.\\" << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t
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