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114 Morphology exist

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
114  Morphology exist when the third root consonant is a guttural ( see below n. 31) would seem to indicate that the vowel a, for example, after the second radical is not possi-ble in verbs which do not end in a guttural consonant. 2.1.3.6 This stem has parallels confirming the independence of the forms  of MH like O^ STS, pftte, i* fca and ] ifr, which appear in Targum Onqelos a s 3 0  jbf, ]* D, - pr# S. The aforementioned M H and Aramaic forms do not comprise a com­plete paradigm, neither in the perfect nor in the imperfect,  and this is true, too, of the SH Pentateuchal forms — though Abu Ishäq3 1  taught that it is possible to form verbs freely in this stem ( except for verbs whose second or third radi­cals are guttural). As examples he adduced Ίώ (* lämed), mp (* qäwem, see above pa), D^ ( sayem, cf. pra). He was undoubtedly giving expression here to a distinct linguistic tradition, at least insofar as Palestinian Aramaic was con­cerned, in which this pattern was alive; however, only traces of this tradition were preserved in Hebrew and Aramaic, while in SH there is at least literary evidence of an independent stem. 2.1.3.7 Explaining the  simple second radical stem is no simple matter. An attempt to fit the stem into the known early Semitic verbal stem system first encounters the Arabic J - t l i stem. Morphologically, this can explain the forms cited above in Aramaic, but not in Hebrew, where the ä  ö shift normally requires an assumption that the qames in them was originally a short vowel. True, TH does have forms that parallel the Arabic 3* 13 stem:  wbn ( kdtiv — Ps 101: 5), wM? ( Job 9: 15), Ί# Ο? ( HOS 13: 3). Thus, the forms νηηη ( Ps 6 2 : 4 ) , vsoxa ( Isa 6 2 : 9 ) , ΉΛΟ ( qere), which undoubtedly resemble the SH  simple second radical stem, cannot be reconciled with fäala. Though in SH there does exist an original ä which did not shift to ö ( 1.5.2.5), it seems unwise to relate the simple second radical stem to qätala, at least because of the forms in M H and in the Bible. It does, on the other hand, seem proper to assume that these forms originate in the Piel stem in which the doubling of the second radical is lost. 3 2 3 0 For MH forms, see Yeivin, Babylonian Vocalization, 582; for Aramaic forms, Dalman, Grammatik, 89; similarly in the Palestinian Targum ( P. Kahle, Masoreten des Westens II [ Stutt­gart, 1930], 22, MS D) * poa. Since in SH the verb 1D3 is conjugated in the Piel stem, it should be noted that in the Babylonian tradition ( Yeivin, Babylonian Vocalization, 515) forms of this verb lack the consonant  doubling in the past and the infinitive as well: ι* ι\\ έ* 5 and also the Hitpael form ifiänö. 3 1 LOT I, 95  ( Hebrew translation, p. 94):  It may be that in the language ( i. e., outside the Pentateuch!) all those types ( i. e., other than the strong verb, those similar and those with a nun and a pe) serve  in this part of the heavy stem except when its second or third radical is a guttural letter. 3 2 Pace S.  Morag in his article  On Some Lines of Similarity between Samaritan Hebrew and the Yemenite Tradition of Post- Biblical Hebrew, Language Studies 5- 6 [ Israel Yeivin Festschrift], 252- 258 [ Hebrew]. See now the English version of this article in ScrHier 37 ( 1998), 284- 301. See Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t t

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114 Morphology exist when the third root consonant is a guttural ( see below n. 31) would seem to indicate that the vowel a, for example, after the second radical is not possi-ble in verbs which do not end in a guttural consonant. 2.1.3.6 This stem has parallels confirming the independence of the forms of MH like O^ STS, pftte, i* fca and ] ifr\\", which appear in Targum Onqelos a s 3 0 j'bf, ]* D, - pr# S. The aforementioned M H and Aramaic forms do not comprise a com­plete paradigm, neither in the perfect nor in the imperfect, and this is true, too, of the SH Pentateuchal forms — though Abu Ishäq3 1 taught that it is possible to form verbs freely in this stem ( except for verbs whose second or third radi­cals are guttural). As examples he adduced Ίώ (* lämed), mp (* qäwem, see above pa), D'^ ( sayem, cf. pra). He was undoubtedly giving expression here to a distinct linguistic tradition, at least insofar as Palestinian Aramaic was con­cerned, in which this pattern was alive; however, only traces of this tradition were preserved in Hebrew and Aramaic, while in SH there is at least literary evidence of an independent stem. 2.1.3.7 Explaining the \\" simple second radical\\" stem is no simple matter. An attempt to fit the stem into the known early Semitic verbal stem system first encounters the Arabic J - t l i stem. Morphologically, this can explain the forms cited above in Aramaic, but not in Hebrew, where the ä > ö shift normally requires an assumption that the qames in them was originally a short vowel. True, TH does have forms that parallel the Arabic 3* 13 stem: \\"> wbn ( kdtiv — Ps 101: 5), wM? ( Job 9: 15), Ί# Ο? ( HOS 13: 3). Thus, the forms νηηη ( Ps 6 2 : 4 ) , vsoxa ( Isa 6 2 : 9 ) , ΉΛΟ ( qere), which undoubtedly resemble the SH \\" simple second radical\\" stem, cannot be reconciled with fä'ala. Though in SH there does exist an original ä which did not shift to ö ( 1.5.2.5), it seems unwise to relate the simple second radical stem to qätala, at least because of the forms in M H and in the Bible. It does, on the other hand, seem proper to assume that these forms originate in the Pi'el stem in which the doubling of the second radical is lost. 3 2 3 0 For MH forms, see Yeivin, Babylonian Vocalization, 582; for Aramaic forms, Dalman, Grammatik, 89; similarly in the Palestinian Targum ( P. Kahle, Masoreten des Westens II [ Stutt­gart, 1930], 22, MS D) * poa. Since in SH the verb 1D3 is conjugated in the Pi'el stem, it should be noted that in the Babylonian tradition ( Yeivin, Babylonian Vocalization, 515) forms of this verb lack the consonant doubling in the past and the infinitive as well: ι* ι\\\\ έ* 5 and also the Hitpa'el form ifiänö. 3 1 LOT I, 95 ( Hebrew translation, p. 94): \\" It may be that in the language ( i. e., outside the Pentateuch!) all those types ( i. e., other than the strong verb, those similar and those with a nun and a pe) serve in this part of the heavy stem except when its second or third radical is a guttural letter.\\" 3 2 Pace S. Morag in his article \\" On Some Lines of Similarity between Samaritan Hebrew and the Yemenite Tradition of Post- Biblical Hebrew,\\" Language Studies 5- 6 [ Israel Yeivin Festschrift], 252- 258 [ Hebrew]. See now the English version of this article in ScrHier 37 ( 1998), 284- 301. See << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t t
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