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MORPHOLOGY 2. VERB 2.0

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
MORPHOLOGY 2. VERB 2.0 Preliminaries 2.0.1 The analysis of a Hebrew word into its basic structural components re­quires distinguishing between three of the smallest morphological units, i. e., three kinds of morphemes — the root, the base, and the formative. The Root, in Hebrew, as in the other Semitic languages, is a sequence of consonants only, which maintains a semantic link, be it in the most general way, in a word family, e. g., ips, ips, ipis, rnps, rnpsa, rpsri and so on, the com­mon denominator of which being the consonantal sequence Tps. The usual, commonly found root in Hebrew consists of three consonants, though traces remain of roots of less than three consonants, as there are roots of four conso­nants — which are multiplying in modern Hebrew — and even a few of five consonants. The Hebrew verb cannot be derived from a root of less than three consonants; thus, if it is derived from a word of a single consonant ( e. g., πτ) or of two consonants ( e. g., πχ, τκ), the language  provides the missing consonants in various ways. , wm is the root of ππτ, ππτ;  the sequence  nx is the root of ΠΠΧΏ ππκ; Τ Η or , W IK are the roots of τχ, rnx, etc.  The question of whether the roots of such verbs as ] i, op are biradical or triradical, in which case one consonant  weakened, is irrelevant to a description of the Hebrew language in histori­cal times. Regarding Hebrew structure in general and the verb in particular, it is im­portant to know whether the radicals are pronounced in all derived or de­clined forms, or whether some of them vanish in various forms without the consequent weakening of the link between those forms and the other words and forms derived from the same root. It is, thus, according to the nature of the structure of the root that all Hebrew roots are customarily divided into two groups known as classes: ( a) the sound class and ( b) the weak class. 2  In 1 This new root which was created so as to serve a clearly technical purpose has already been used in poetry, where it has developed a new verbal stem Hifil: / πτπ ^ yp^ TO/ ιηκπ « fua rvnn ηου ππη ηη ΐκ nwa  Vjr/  nS TO T^ OJ? CP??? ( Zerubavel Gilead, Zemirot Yeruqot ( Tel- Äviv, 1972- 3, 5 [ Hebrew]). 2 The traditional  Hebrew term is D ^ l V y ( pl.) which means  weak,  sick. Yosef Qimhi called Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index t

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MORPHOLOGY 2. VERB 2.0 Preliminaries 2.0.1 The analysis of a Hebrew word into its basic structural components re­quires distinguishing between three of the smallest morphological units, i. e., three kinds of morphemes — the root, the base, and the formative. The Root, in Hebrew, as in the other Semitic languages, is a sequence of consonants only, which maintains a semantic link, be it in the most general way, in a word family, e. g., ips, ips, ipis, rnps, rnpsa, rpsri and so on, the com­mon denominator of which being the consonantal sequence Tps. The usual, commonly found root in Hebrew consists of three consonants, though traces remain of roots of less than three consonants, as there are roots of four conso­nants — which are multiplying in modern Hebrew — and even a few of five consonants. The Hebrew verb cannot be derived from a root of less than three consonants; thus, if it is derived from a word of a single consonant ( e. g., πτ) or of two consonants ( e. g., πχ, τκ), the language provides the missing consonants in various ways. , wm is the root of ππτ,' ππτ; the sequence \\"\\"' nx is the root of ΠΠΧΏ ππκ; Τ Η or , W IK are the roots of τχ, rnx, etc. The question of whether the roots of such verbs as ] i, op are biradical or triradical, in which case one consonant \\" weakened,\\" is irrelevant to a description of the Hebrew language in histori­cal times. Regarding Hebrew structure in general and the verb in particular, it is im­portant to know whether the radicals are pronounced in all derived or de­clined forms, or whether some of them vanish in various forms without the consequent weakening of the link between those forms and the other words and forms derived from the same root. It is, thus, according to the nature of the structure of the root that all Hebrew roots are customarily divided into two groups known as classes: ( a) the sound class and ( b) the weak class. 2 In 1 This new root which was created so as to serve a clearly technical purpose has already been used in poetry, where it has developed a new verbal stem Hif'il: / πτπ ^ yp^ TO/ ιηκπ « fua rvnn ηου ππη ηη' ΐκ nwa ' Vjr/ nS TO T^ OJ? CP???' ( Zerubavel Gilead, Zemirot Yeruqot ( Tel- Äviv, 1972- 3, 5 [ Hebrew]). 2 The traditional Hebrew term is D ^ l V y ( pl.) which means \\" weak,\\" \\" sick.\\" Yosef Qimhi called << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t
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