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1.5 Sound Changes 83

by Zeev Ben-Hayyim
1.5 Sound Changes 83 rummä nai ( EX 16: 24)( 1.2), it did not stem from original u, but rather from sound proximity, and even as such these are only exceptional cases. The sole remnant of original u can still be found in the passive form wtuqqa nprn ( Gn 12: 15); and see 2.10.7. 1.5.2.4 The long vowels i, ü of the common stage survive without change in TH; in SH the only changes which affect them are those necessary because of the relationship between vowel quantity and syllable structure, i. e., they shorten in closed syllables ( except, of course, in syllables beginning with a guttural consonant, which can take extra- long vowels, as noted in 1.2.3). When i shortens, it may shift to e in closed stressed syllables ( unlike vowels derived from short i, see 1.5.1.1). Examples:  ätidot mrny, ribot man, rib an, den p , ser το, sebetkimma oan- aw ( SP Num. 31: 19). This also applies to the vowel stemming from the contraction of the diphthong ay, as in zitak inn, zit m, des wn, bit/ bet n^ a. ü in a closed syllable shifts to o, as noted in 1.2.4, as in wäsümem D^ areyi: wäsom oisyi,  ammüdi may:  ammod  nay. Proto- Semitic ä had already shifted to ö during the stage common to SH and TH; each of these traditions contains, however, forms and words in which the shift did not take place. This fact gives rise to the following questions: under what conditions did the shift take place, and does the situation in SH contribute to our the understanding of the phenomenon? 1.5.2.5 ä  ö. Since the shift was a general one throughout the Canaanite area and is very common in both TH and SH, we shall note here those cases in which the shift does not take place in either tradition, where one encounters a qames in TH ( unless it is in the construct state, where a patah replaces it) and a or a in SH, according to the rules of vowel quantity. Verbal Forms: a. Qal inf. abs.: niatf / samar ( Dt 11: 22), tfm / daras and others; b. PVel verbal nouns: nwpa, nana / - c. Hifil verbal nouns: rnan, myatfn / - d. Qal part.: rann / arrümes, DSW I süfat, etc. — but jnu / naten ( alongside nüten), Ί^ ιη / alek, ] mn / äten  and many more; Ty verbs: rap / qämo, and in the later language as in SA ox1 1 1  sam. 1 1 1 Note the length of the vowel and what is stated below, 1.5.3.4. A form such as säm or qäm can be explained on the basis of  Aramaic, in which case the question of the presence of ä ( a) instead of ö is not relevant. Chapter Home  | TOC | Index t

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1.5 Sound Changes 83 rummä nai ( EX 16: 24)( 1.2), it did not stem from original u, but rather from sound proximity, and even as such these are only exceptional cases. The sole remnant of original u can still be found in the passive form wtuqqa nprn ( Gn 12: 15); and see 2.10.7. 1.5.2.4 The long vowels i, ü of the common stage survive without change in TH; in SH the only changes which affect them are those necessary because of the relationship between vowel quantity and syllable structure, i. e., they shorten in closed syllables ( except, of course, in syllables beginning with a guttural consonant, which can take extra- long vowels, as noted in 1.2.3). When i shortens, it may shift to e in closed stressed syllables ( unlike vowels derived from short i, see 1.5.1.1). Examples: ' ätidot mrny, ribot man, rib an, den p , ser το, sebetkimma oan- aw ( SP Num. 31: 19). This also applies to the vowel stemming from the contraction of the diphthong ay, as in zitak inn, zit m, des wn, bit/ bet n^ a. ü in a closed syllable shifts to o, as noted in 1.2.4, as in wäsümem D^ areyi: wäsom oisyi, ' ammüdi may: ' ammod \\" nay. Proto- Semitic ä had already shifted to ö during the stage common to SH and TH; each of these traditions contains, however, forms and words in which the shift did not take place. This fact gives rise to the following questions: under what conditions did the shift take place, and does the situation in SH contribute to our the understanding of the phenomenon? 1.5.2.5 ä > ö. Since the shift was a general one throughout the Canaanite area and is very common in both TH and SH, we shall note here those cases in which the shift does not take place in either tradition, where one encounters a qames in TH ( unless it is in the construct state, where a patah replaces it) and a or a in SH, according to the rules of vowel quantity. Verbal Forms: a. Qal inf. abs.: niatf / samar ( Dt 11: 22), tfm / daras and others; b. PVel verbal nouns: nwpa, nana / - c. Hif'il verbal nouns: rnan, myatfn / - d. Qal part.: rann / arrümes, DSW I süfat, etc. — but jnu / naten ( alongside nüten), Ί^ ιη / alek, ] mn / äten and many more; T'y verbs: rap / qämo, and in the later language as in SA ox1 1 1 sam. 1 1 1 Note the length of the vowel and what is stated below, 1.5.3.4. A form such as säm or qäm can be explained on the basis of Aramaic, in which case the question of the presence of ä ( a) instead of ö is not relevant. << Chapter >> Home | TOC | Index t
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