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A Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew

by M. H. Segal

Bibliographic information

TitleA Grammar of Mishnaic Hebrew
AuthorM. H. Segal
PublisherVarda Books
Publication Date2009
Pages291


Description 

More than any other, this book makes the subject is accessible to scholars who are not fluent in modern Hebrew. Published originally in 1927 by Oxford Press, it has not yet been replaced. In it, Segal clarifies the relationships between Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew. Preceding authors had place emphases on the differences between two periods and viewed BH and MH as sequential development. Segal's approach was that if Mishnaic Hebrew was the language of everyday life, it had to contain a large number of words that were absent from the Bible. The result had to be two co-existing sets of vocabularies, i.e. there had to bee two different sets of words: one used for literature and the other for day-to-day communications. A great review of this work can be read on the website of openedition.org http://bcrfj.revues.org/index642.html#text



About the Author 

M. H. Segal ---





Contents 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LITERATURE

ADDENDA

INTRODUCTION

1. Four Periods in the History of Hebrew

2. The Name Misnaic Hebrew

3. Name of the dialect in MH literature

4. Its Literary Remains

5. Differences between MH and BH

6. Μ Η not an artificial language

7-8. Its Grammar derived from BH

9-12. Its Vocabulary

13. Its History as a spoken language

14-15. It is descended from colloquial Hebrew of Biblical times

16. Early MH

17-18. Use of BH, MH, and Aram

19-21. The rise and decline of MH

22-23. Aram, in Jerusalem

24. Aram. chapters of Ezra and Daniel

25. The language of legal documents

26. The language of the Temple

27. Sadducees and MH

28. Trustworthiness of Rabbinic tradition

PART I PHONOLOGY AND ORTHOGRAPHY

I. EVIDENCE FOR THE PRONUNCIATION

(a) External.

(b) Internal.

II. THE VOWELS

III. THE CONSONANTS

1. Gutturals.

2. Palatals.

3. Dentals.

4. Labials.

5. Sibilants.

6. Sonants.

7. Semi-Vowels.

ת ,פ ,כ ,ד ,ג ,ב . 8

9. Other Consonantal Changes.

PART II MORPHOLOGY

I. THE PRONOUN

1. The Personal Pronoun.

2. The Demonstrative Pronoun.

3. Relative Pronoun.

4. The Possessive Pronoun.

5. The Interrogative Pronoun.

II. THE VERB

A. General Survey,

1. LEXICAL.

(Α) ΒΗ Verbs not found in MH.

(Β) MH Verbs not found in BH.

(C) ΒΗ Verbs with different usage in MH.

2. GRAMMATICAL.

(Α) ΒΗ Stems not found in MH.

(B) MH Stems not found in BH,

B. The Stems.

1. THE SIMPLE STEM.

2. THE INTENSIVE STEM.

3. THE CAUSATIVE STEM.

C. The Tenses.

D. Weak Verbs.

(1) GUTTURAL VERBS,

(2) VERBS הפך

(3) VERBS.פ״י

(4) VERBS .פ״נ

(5) VERBS .ע׳י ,עיו

(6) VERBS .ע״ע

(7) VERBS .ל״א

(8) VERBS .ליה

(9) VERBS WITH PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES.

III. THE NOUN

1. General Survey.

2. Formation of Nouns.

(1) Nouns derived from the Simple Stem.

(2) Nouns derived from the Intensive Stem.

(3) Nouns formed by Reduplication.

(4) Nouns formed by Prefixes.

(5) Nouns formed by means of Suffixes.

(6) Formations by Sound-Insertion.

(7) Formations from Biblical Expressions in Technical

(8) Diminutives.

3. Formation of the Feminine.

4. Formation of the Plural.

5. The Dual

IV. THE PARTICLES

1. Adverbs.

2. Prepositions.

3. Conjunctions.

4. Interjections.

PART III SYNTAX

I. THE VERB

1. Tenses and Moods.

(1) THE PERFECT.

(2) THE IMPERFECT.

(3) THE PARTICIPLE.

(4) THE INFINITIVE,

2. The Government of the Verb.

(1) Subordination of Noun to Verb as Accusative.

(2) Subordination of Noun to Verb by a Preposition.

(3) Co-ordination of a Verb to another Verb as Auxiliary.

II. THE NOUN

1 Determination of the Gender.

2. Use of the Article.

3. Expression of the Genitive.

(1) The Construct State.

(2) Simple Circumlocution of the Genitive.

(3) Circumlocution of the Genitive with Anticipation.

4. Comparison of Adjectives.

5. Numerals.

III. THE PRONOUN

1. The Personal Pronoun.

2. Possessive Pronoun.

3. Demonstrative Pronoun.

4. Interrogative Pronoun.

5. Relative Pronoun.

6. Expression of the Reflexive and Reciprocal.

7. Expression of the Indefinite.

IV. SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

1. Nominative Absolute.

2. Agreement between Subject and Predicate.

3. Sentences expressing an Oath or a Vow.

4. Interrogative Sentences.

5 Desiderative Sentences.

6. Negative Sentences.

7. Relative Clauses.

8. Circumstantial Clauses.

9. Causal Clauses.

10. Conditional Sentences.

11. Concessive Clauses.

12. Comparative Clauses.

13. Disjunctive Clauses.

14. Adversative, Exceptive, and Bestrictive Clauses.

15. Temporal Clauses.

16. Final Clauses.

17. Consecutive Clauses.




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