ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY...

The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Introduction the meaning of ^ V~^ V is  under the authority of, at the guidance of. # 23. In ostraca Nos. 9, 34, 38, 49, 54, 81, 108, 124, 150 the word mpüö recurs; and in 15 and 131, mptt, as a place from which wheat, barley, barley groats, straw and oil are taken out. The word is probably a derivation of lp3 ( to dig, bore). Thus mpJB may mean  cistern,  cavity or  pit ( notice that the words mpJö and mpft are not in the determined state). Actually the Beer- sheba ostraca were unearthed in pits, and those of Tell Jemmeh in grana­ries. The texts of both groups are very similar to ours. # 24. Sometimes the texts specify from where the wheat or barley was taken or brought. In Nos. 72, 48 and 82, we find, respectively: Knmt n n y ρ ( from the grain of the purchase), ρ xriDT mny ( from the grain of the loan) and NniDott n n y ρ ( from the grain of msknt). No. 92 reads: 20 ο Π ΚΠΉΟΖΛ 10 0 Π ΚΠοΤ ] Ώ ( from the loan 10 seah of wheat, to the msknt 20 seah of wheat). In No. 81 mpJB niDöft 1 ? can be read. What does κ η^ ΟΒ mean? Has it any relation to the biblical expression mJDöö and does it mean  storage place,  magazine? See 2 Chron. 32: 28 ΊΠΠ ϊίητηΐ p i DNinn1? muso » ( storehouses for the crops of grain and wine and oil). # 25. Our ostraca do not contain any administrative or professional titles, and indicate nothing about state or regional administration. The socio- economic structure of certain groups mentioned in the ostraca is instructive: three documents refer to  the House of PN ( PN = Bacalrim, Yehokal and cAlibacal), and 30 to  the Sons of PN ( PN = Bacalrim, Guru, Yehokal, Qosi, Rammarana, etc.). This feature clearly reflects a clan- tribal organization. # 26. Regrettably, the ostraca do not have clear data about the place from which they originate. No. 100 contains the toponym 1ΊΤ3Π n m y ( in No. 130 the partial toponym U] N n m y has survived); the word nrftö in No. 108 might also be a toponym. Perhaps, the meaning of both words, nmy ( desert) and nn^ tt ( saline soil), points to the Judaean Desert and its neighbourhood. The word x n m in No. 90: 2 may also be a toponym, meaning  the height ( cf. the Aramaic translations to n m n in Josh. 18: 25; Judg. 19: 13; Jer. 31: 15; etc.). This toponym is very common ( in the Hebrew Bible it designates five distinct settlements in various parts of Palestine), and it cannot therefore be of much help in locating the place of provenance of our ostraca. # 27. A clue to the area in general can be obtained from the personal names. Our ostraca contain about 150 personal names ( in addition to kings names occurring in the date formu­lae). All have a West Semitic derivation. Among the theophoric elements found in about 61 names are the following divine names: Qaus ( in 20 cases), El ( 18), Baal ( 14), and Yahu ( 3). The theophoric element in some names is Babylonian/ Mesopotamian ( e. g., cAbdshamash, Shamashdan and Natansin) or Egyptian ( e. g., cAbdosiri and cAbdisi). The verbal or nominal elements accompanying the divine elements are, however, West Semitic, and this indicates that these names are West Semitic. On ΓΠΧ as a theophoric element see commentary on No. 46. There are 24 ( non- theophoric) names with an 1- ending, which is typical of Arabic, in­cluding Nabataean, names. One can add to this list 12 names that do not have an 1- ending but [ 15] Chapter Home | TOC  | Index

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA


About Book ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA

Front Matter Half Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Table Of Contents Preface INTRODUCTIONREFERENCESABBREVIATIONSContents TEXTS, TRANSLATIONS AND COMMENTARYBack Matter GLOSSARYINDICES OF NAMESPersonal Names in Nos. 1-199 ToponymsPersonal Names in Nos. 200-201 Back Cover
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