ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY...

The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Introduction # 20. No. 191 mentions nnttfft ( measurements] of ...); cf. x m nnttfft Π1Τ ( these are the meas­urements of the house) in the fifth- century Aramaic papyri from Elephantine ( Kraeling 1953, Nos. 9: 5; 12: 6, 15). Here, the word Ο^ ΐί/ Χ indicates that real measurements are being listed; one of the areas given is of a marsh ( ppl). # 21. The verbs used in our ostraca are ΤΡΠ ( brought), in Nos. 1, 13, 27, 31, 33, 35, 90, 114, 150, 162; and ^ ym ( brought in), in Nos. 34, 51,75, 98, 152. There is one occurrence of Nttttn, in No. 26 ( lit.  caused to reach, i. e.  delivered). In Nos. 56, 108 and 128 the word οΐίληκ occurs. In No. 108 we read mpiiB 1 ? [, L 7D] o n n x . Can this mean  PN put aside for reserve? Does the root on stand here for m ( to hide, to save, to store)? OJinx must be an etpecel form, which is a passive pattern; but in the present context it seems to have an active role ( cf. r u n Π in Late Biblical Hebrew). ΠΓΡ is used only once, in No. 16, in the phrase Nlttn * ΏΊ 3ΓΡ ( he gave the price of the wine). It is noteworthy that in the ancient synagogue inscriptions nm denotes only a donation of money ( Naveh 1978: 9- 10). im ( to lead, to take) occurs in No. 46 in the sentence ypn *?* Π* Λη i n y nip ρ m* nny ΊΤΤ ( cAbdada took animals from cAzizu and Lacadel). # 22. XüZp T* 7 ( in No. 2) was translated  to the hand of Qosa, but it may mean simply  to Qosa. However, T 1 ? may also mean  under the authority of. On the fifth- century BC Persepolis green chert objects the following formula is frequently inscribed ( Bowman 1970; Naveh and Shaked 1973: 445- 47): rut Y my PN 2 * mo PN 1 T 1 ? κήτη Χ η Ζ nw IDWN KinmsK PN 4 nip xmm PN 3 r1? In the fortress X, under the authority of PN 1 the segän, PN 2 made [ delivered] this Y [ object] to PN 3 the treasurer, before [ in the presence of] PN 4 the sub- treasurer. Tribute of the year Z. In this formula τ* 7 means both  to and  under the authority of. In the first- century BC Parthian ostraca from Nisa τ* 7 is an Aramaic ideogram. In these ostraca NnnD T1? or ηΐη^ Π T1? means  under the authority of the governor/ satrap ( see Diakonov and Lifshitz 1960: 40) In our ostraca, besides three occurrences of T 1 ? ( Nos. 2, 92 and 98), there are twelve occur­rences of τ * 75J. The latter can also be translated  to ( see Cowley 1923: Nos. 2: 3,13; 3: 4; 26: 21). In a late- fifth- century BC Aramaic letter on papyrus from Egypt ( Berlin 23000) we have Τ ^ y inn ( line 3) and T* 7 inn ( line 6), both meaning  give to ( Porten and Yardeni 1986: 48). However, since our ostraca Nos. 34, 37 and 116 have ^ D 1 ? and then τ *? y, it is obvious that , L 7D τ ^ y cannot be translated as ( given) to ( the goods could not be delivered to two different persons) and must have another interpretation. The preposition τ ^ y meaning  at the guidance, direction of appears in 2 Chron. 26: 11,13; and m^ y, presumably with the same meaning, in Jer. 5: 31, 33: 13, and 1 Chron. 25: 2,3,6. It is noteworthy that in an ostracon recently published by Beit Arieh ( 1994: 34), [ 1 4 ] Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA


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Front Matter Half Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Table Of Contents Preface INTRODUCTIONREFERENCESABBREVIATIONSContents TEXTS, TRANSLATIONS AND COMMENTARYBack Matter GLOSSARYINDICES OF NAMESPersonal Names in Nos. 1-199 ToponymsPersonal Names in Nos. 200-201 Back Cover
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