ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY...

The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Introduction do not deal with a few grains, it must have another meaning. Ostracon No. 155 reads: 2 p n i 1 ^ ntz/ tt ( 2 grgr and 1 basket [ of straw]); No. 67 registers 1 20 p m ( 20 grgr and 1 beam). No. 86 deals only with m n ( one beam). # 16. In three ostraca, Nos. 57, 94 and 119, rrnn is mentioned. In No. 57 it is Wttn mnn ( five hbyh)] in Nos. 94 and 119 it is 3 rrnn. This word does not occur in Aramaic, unless we surmise that it equals XJTDn ( jar; in Mishnaic Hebrew mnn). In Syriac ΧΓΡΠΠ is also a liquid measure corresponding to Biblical Hebrew nn in Jos. 5: 10 ( see Brockelmann 1928: 209b). Arabic = large jar, vat ( see Hava 1915: 154a). Thus rrnn here may be Arabic. # 17. Ostraca Nos. 186,187 and 190 list amounts of olives that are measured by kor and seah. The olives are specified by the name of their cultivator — for example, No. 186, Dlöip Τ Η ( the olives of Qausram); 7100 TPT ( the olives of Samuk). In No. 187 mxtt τ η ( cf. η κ η , No. 186) means  olives from which oil for lighting was extracted. The word mxtt is Hebrew ( see, e. g., Exod. 27: 20: mxrf? DTD ΓΡΤ p w [ pure olive oil beaten for the light]) and does not occur in Aramaic, except perhaps once. 3 If η κ ο was indeed a Canaanite/ Hebrew word, it was accepted by the inhabitants of Idumaea who wrote the ostraca and might be used as an idiom in their fourth- century BC Aramaic ( cf. above # 10, the spelling w* n for  barley groats). # 18. Ostraca Nos. 188- 194 are registrations of fields and orchards. In No. 189, line 1, we find 2 D snt , l 7S Dün ( PNs orchard for whose sowing two seah of seeds are needed), cf. y tt rpD, Arsham Letter VIII: 2,4 ( Driver 1965: 30- 31); or yiT mw, Ezek. 17: 5. In Nos. 191, 192 and 194 land is measured by * 7ttfN or X* 7ttfX ( rope); see also the 515 BC Meissner Papyrus ( Porten and Yardeni 1989: B1.1), line 3. The exact meaning of nDD is unknown ( but see commentary on No. 185). Klin in 189, line 4, could be a personal name, but it can also mean  white, mttf ρ*? Π in Mishna Shevicit 11: 1 and Moced Qatan 1: 4 is  a bright, unshaded field of vegetables or grain, as opposed to i ^ x meaning  orchard field ( Jastrow 1950: 690b). See also in the Bar- Kokhba documents: p*? n IDyn ( Nahal Hever 44: 12, unpublished). # 19. No. 190 lists some fields and their areas: 26 0 m n DID ( the vineyard of Huri, the area of which needs 26 seah of seeds for sowing). DID recurs in lines 5 and 6. In line 2 the word f *? n appears. This word is known from the Nabataean documents from Nahal Hever. It occurs there in the list of items belonging to the sold field: * pym f^ m i m i yriD; the first two words mean  houses and courtyards, but the latter two are unclear; γ^ η recurs in 192: 6. The mean­ing of  » M in No. 188: 4 is also unclear, but it can perhaps be related to DSD in No. 189: 4. HDD reappears in 193: 2. Another problematic word is TDl ( Nos. 188: 3; 192: 4; 194: 1). In No. 190, XTDI TPT oc­curs. The word T D I recurs in texts dealing with various sorts of lands. Ίΐϋ, mentioned twice in No. 190, probably means  field ( Sokoloff 1990: 222a). 3 Sokoloff 1990: 288a quotes a fragment from the Palestinian Targum of Exod. 13: 22 NTlEy UNft Χ11$ Ί, but remarks that nxtt is  prob, corrupt. [ 13] Chapter Home | TOC  | Index

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA


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Front Matter Half Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Table Of Contents Preface INTRODUCTIONREFERENCESABBREVIATIONSContents TEXTS, TRANSLATIONS AND COMMENTARYBack Matter GLOSSARYINDICES OF NAMESPersonal Names in Nos. 1-199 ToponymsPersonal Names in Nos. 200-201 Back Cover
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