ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY...

The 201 of containing in the book Aramaic ostraca dating 361-311 BC are almost exclusive source for the study of the ethnic structure and the economic life for end of the Persian rule in the Land of Israel and the beginning of the Hellenistic period.

Introduction olives are mentioned. The word ] ϊϊ does not occur in our ostraca, but we have the words ΊΏΠ ( wine) and DID ( vineyard). Besides NTPT ( olives), one finds also the word nttftt ( oil). To indi­cate the types of fields and orchards, the following terms are used: / l 7D nn ( PNs orchard), TP Τ / l 7D ( PNs olive grove), p*? n ( field), f^ n (= ?), m& ( field),  DD/ nDD ( garden?), nxj ( orchard), and ntz; p ( grove). Terms related to wood are ( beam) and ipy; cf. also *? m? 3 ( load) in # 14. # 7. No. 46 deals with livestock ( ypn): one ram ( IT?), two lambs ( pttx), one ewe Cm); No. 118 mentions Niimn ( a cow?). # 8. Nos. 16, 122, 140- 141 and 180 are related to money, listed in small quantities. Four ostraca refer to 1- 4 f? s; D ( labourers). # 9. The majority of the new ostraca are dockets of the kind known already from the Beer-sheba ostraca ( Beer- sheba Nos. 1- 12 and 27- 32; Naveh 1973, 1979); Tell Jemmeh ( Tell Jemmeh Nos. 1- 4; Naveh 1992a) and the Yatta region ( Naveh 1985: 117- 18). Many of them bear exact dates ( day, month and regnal year) and personal names, which are followed by the merchandise ( mainly barley or wheat) as well as the measure and quantity. The type of grain, its measures and amounts are generally written in abbreviated form: w stands for pyttf ( bar­ley), π = p in ( wheat), D = ID ( kor), ο = ΠΧ0. ( seah), p = Dp ( qab), D = ** 7D ( half), Ί = yDl ( quarter). For example, No. 9: 5 p 26 ο 1 D ttf =  barley: 1 kor, 26 seah ( and) 5 qab. However, sometimes the writer did not abbreviate these words and wrote, for example, iwy ] K0 pyttf m Dp nfrlüm =  barley: eighteen seah and one qab ( No. 63). # 10. The barley is sometimes specified. In the Aramaic ostraca from Arad, barley was dis­tributed for horses and asses, whereas the horsemen received τ ρ π ( crushed [ barley/ wheat]). In Syriac, the verb ipl in pecal has three meanings:  to stab,  to gore and  to beat ( in an extended meaning  to crush). In Pahlavi, this root as an Aramaic ideogram stands for the Persian word koftan ( to crush). In Biblical Hebrew, crushed barley/ wheat is called DIDI or m a n ( see 2 Sam. 17: 19 and especially Prov. 27: 22). The Peshitta translates niDi of 2 Sam. 17: 19 as κ urn ( barley groats). In our ostracon No. 117 the word tzm occurs. In Nos. 1, 41,42, 49 and 50, this word was written by the same person with an alef: t w o , perhaps under the influence of the Canaanite word for  head. # 11. In addition to wheat and barley, these dockets also deal with flour ( nop) and with fine flour: in No. 80, Nacum delivered, in addition to D 2 p nttp ( 2l/ 2 qab of flour), 1 ρ η litt ( 1 qab of fine flour); No. 6 mentions 3 Ί 5 D * pxtn ( 5 3 / 4 seah of fine flour). In the Peshitta, in Gen. 18: 6 and 2 Kings 7: 1, n^ D is translated as wm. In Syriac x& m Nnftp is  fine flour, and is  fine wheat meal. Wheat and barley were measured by kor, seah and qab. Crushed barley/ wheat, barley groats, flour and fine flour, whose production demanded a considerable amount of work, were measured in smaller units: seah and qab. Oil ( nttffc) and wine ( ion) were measured by seah and qab, as well as by sub- units of a qab: ( sn) l ( a quarter) and ( rnöl) n ( an eighth). [ 1 1 ] Chapter Home  | TOC  | Index

ARAMAIC OSTRACA OF THE FOURTH CENTURY BC FROM IDUMAEA


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Front Matter Half Title Page Title Page Copyright Page Table Of Contents Preface INTRODUCTIONREFERENCESABBREVIATIONSContents TEXTS, TRANSLATIONS AND COMMENTARYBack Matter GLOSSARYINDICES OF NAMESPersonal Names in Nos. 1-199 ToponymsPersonal Names in Nos. 200-201 Back Cover
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