Front MatterFront Cover Map Half Title PageTitle PageCopyright PageContents PrefaceContentsPART ONE: IntroductionI. Preservation of toponyms in the Holy Land as a basis for studying its pastII. The set of toponyms as a linguistic corpusIII. Linguistic analysis of metamorphoses of names; previous attemptsIV. Evaluation of Kampffmeyer's studyV. The danger of using toponyms for historical research without linguistic disciplineVI. Guidelines for linguistic investigation of changes in toponymsVII. What are 'almost positive' identifications? VIII. Mode of operationIX. A list of the 177 toponyms of the full corpus X. A few technicalitiesPART TWO: THE ENTRIES1. ?a?sa?e?a. ( ?? 0??(? . [qesariyye]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussi2. ?a?a?st???. ???????/????/?????? [falastin]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion3. ?eap????. ??????? [nables]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion5. ???a???. ??? ???? . [hagla]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion7. ??ad. ??? . ['arad] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion8. ?a?aa?a. ????? *. [milh]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discus9. ???aßatt???. ????? . ['aqraba]Identification and bibliographyDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion10. ??ß???. ['irbid]Identification and documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion11. ????a. ??? . [fahel]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion12.? ?ße????. ????? [tabariyya] / [tabariyye]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion13. ?a?e??. ????? [banyas]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion14. ??aßa. ??? . ['arrabe]Identification and documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion15. Safforine /S epf????. ( ??????(?/? ???? [saffurye]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion16. ?µµa?. ???? ???? ['amman]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion17.? a?aßa/????[ß]. ??? . [rageb] Identification and documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion18. ?et?a???ß(a). ['innabe] 18a. [bet nuba] 18. Identification and documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion18a. IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion19. ?sd?d ['esdud] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion20. ???a???. ????? . ['aqer]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion21. ?s?a???. ?????? . ['asqalan]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion22. ?fe??. ??? . [fiq] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion23. ?µµa????. ???? - ???? . ['ammata] IdentificationDocumentation of the name Linguistic discussio24.? µµa?a. ??? ??? . ['el-hamme]Documentation of the name Linguistic discussion25. ?a??d?µ?e?. ???? ????? . [tal'at ed?damm]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion26. ????a??? - ???e??µ. ???????? . [bet 'enun]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion27. ?d????µ - ?d???µ. ???? . ['id el-miyye] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion28. ?d???. ???? . [hadite] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion29. ???ß. ??? . ['anab] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion30. 'Avaia - ??e?. ???? . [gwen] or [gwene]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion31. ?s?eµ?. ????? - ?????? . [samu']Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion32. ?ta????. Atarus. ['attara] or ['atara]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussionI. AtarotII. Others33. ?s??. [tyasir] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion34. ?ta???.(? ????? (????? ??? , ['atara] or ['atta ra]IdenificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion35. ??a???. ????? .['anata] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion36.? ?[?]???. ???? ??? - *????? . [('i)ksal] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion37. '????. ??? . ['akka]Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion38. ??d?ppa. ????? . ['iz-zib] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion39. ?????. ???? . [yalo] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion40. ????e?[?]'. ['arura] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion41. ?ße?. ?ß??a. ['abil] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion42. ?e?d??.? ?d??. ??? ??? . ['endor] / ['indur] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion43. ???a??e?µ. ( ? 1???? ?). [galame]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion44. [S]a?e?µ- [Sa???µ?a?]. ??? *? [seh salem] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion45. ?a???? - ?e???. ?????? . [betin]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion46. ????e?µ. ??? ??? . [bet lahem] Documentation of the nameLinguistic discussion48.G ?ß?. [(al-)gib] IdentificationLinguistic discussio50.? a?. ?? . [tall el-qadi], [nahr al?liddan]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion51. ?a??e?. [danne]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion52.? ??ae?µ. ???/????? . [dotan]/[dotan]/[dota]/[dota] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion53.? ?ß??? - [?a?ß??] - ??ß??. ????? . [diban]/[diban]Documentation of the name Erroneous transmissionLinguistic discussion54.? aßa???a (?aße????). ???? . [dab(b)urye]54a. ???? . [dabura]? IdentificationDocumentation of the name ????Documentation of the name ????Linguistic discussion55. ???µa. [dome]/[dume]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion56.? a?d??. ??? . [dana]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion57.? seß?? - ?sß???. ????? , [hesban]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion58. ?d??, ?d?a?. ????? . [der'a]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussion59.? ?e???. ????? . ['el'al] / ['el'ala] IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic Discussion60. '?f?a?µ. ?????/???? . ['afra]/[at?tay(yi)be]IdentificationDocumentation of the nameLinguistic discussionPLATESPLATES 1PLATES 2PLATES 3PLATES 4PLATES 5PLATES 6PLATES 7PLATES 8PART THREE: Linguistic SummaryI. Comments on Spellingl . I n the Bible2. In Ancient Hebrew and Northwest Semitic inscriptions3. In Greek and Latin sources4. In Medieval Arabic sources5. Reports by modern scholarsII. PhonologConsonants1. Ancient Semitic sounds, now generally lost2. Preservation of gutturals3. Hard and soft pronunciation ( (???? ????)4. Semitic cognates of Greek ? p t5. Preservation of emphasis in Arab speech6. Generally ? > [s]; in Galilee (and Lebanon) ? > [s] 8. Gemination of consonants9. Assimilation in quality of consonants10. Consonantal alternationVowels11.The 'Canaanite Shift' 12. i13. a14. u15. holem16. holem > e in Moab and the coastal towns?17. Added /n/ or /m/ at end of word after long vowel18. Ancient short vowel in pretonic open syllable19. Qames and patah20. Sere21. Short i ; 'defective' hireq and segol22. Short u23. Semi-vowels24. Sewa quiescent25. Differences of vowel length26. Diphthongs27. Vowel assimilation28. Attenuation29. Omission of final vowel in a Greek name by Hebrew and Aramaic speakers30. Raising of vowel before ta marbuta in Arabic ('final imala') Accentuation31. Accentuation in place names in Arab speech32. Difficulty of drawing conclusions from present-day pronunciation as to accentuation in the past 33. Addition of ?/? ? ? at the end of a word after a vowel may also occurwhen the accent is on the penult III. Morphology1. Patterns of nouns of Semitic origin in the Corpus2. Vestiges of Gt3. The 'Segolates'4. qitil > qitl > qatl 5. Alternating of thematic vowel in segolate forms6. qital> ??? ( generally in Hebrew)/ (sometimes )/ ? ? ? (similar to Aramaic) 7. qatil > ???? > qatil (majority) / qatil (minority) 8. Historical alternation of noun patterns9. First part of a name understood as prefix and droppedSuffixes of noun patterns10. Suffix -at; source and reason for preservation in toponyms11. Suffix -i12. Suffix -it13. Suffix -aymln not as a dual ending - a typical addition to toponyms14. Alternation and omission of suffixes15. Alternations between Hebrew/Aramaic and Greek suffixes16. Greek -??? suffix reflecting -on 17. Added /a/ at end of names in Greek and Latin sources in the Roman-Byzantine Era18. Non-Greek sources render -os/-us instead of -as/?is in an originally Greek name - standardization? 19. Adaptation of pre-Arabic suffix to Arabic 20. Back-formation21. ?a?t?-/?et?-, ????- (= ???? ,???? ,) in 2nd-6th centuries CE22. Final 'imala: ta' marbuta pronounced today [e] or [i] (except after gutturals, emphatics and ra' under certain conditions) 23. Names preserved in Arabic as diminutiveIV. Definite Article and Syntax1. Determination and the definite article2. Special phenomena pertaining to the definite article3. Names consisting of two words4. as an integral part of the name: sometimes a free variant 5. ???? as part of the name in early periods dropped later (for historical reasons?) V. Etymology and Semantics1. Interpretations of names and lexicological remarks2. Etiological homilies and folk etymology3. Internal changes in the name inspired by changed understanding of its elements 4. Translation and adaptation of names from one language to another 5. A Hebrew calque to a Greek form.6. Pedantic forms in literary Arabic sources7. Influence of landscape on development of the name8. Name replaced by a euphemism9. Common noun derived from a place nameVI. Historical Matters, Transmission of Hebrew, Confluence of LanguagesGeneral1. Confluence of languages2. 'Wandering' word from the 3rd mill. BCE?3. Name preserved for millennia by nomads, despite mostly ruined state of site 4. Name preserved in two parallel versions5. Name influenced by a generally known name6. Regional differences7. Standard and substandardThe Bible and the biblical period8. Names in the Bible - MT, LXX and other documentation 9. Early vs. late books of the Bible10. Ammonite?11. The coastal cities in Greek12. Ancient Assyrian source reflecting local Hebrew pronunciation Roman-Byzantine Period13. Certain people and their reports of place-names14. The Targums15. Mishnah, Talmuds, Midrash and their linguistic traditions 16. SamaritansArab Period and Middle Ages17. Adaptation of names to Arabic; the question of 'Arab mouth' and 'Syrian mouth' 18. Arabic material of Christian source from the first centuries A.H.19. Colloquial Arabic preserves the original name better than does Literary Arabic 20. Preservation of a name in a nearby waliModern Era21. Change of name in Transjordan on eve of and during 19th century22. European travelers err in hearing and recording Arabic sounds23. Scholars lend exaggerated weight to an exceptional report24. Misidentification due to misreading of sources25. To what extent have names changed since the Arab conquest till today? PART FOUR: A Brief Summary of New Discoveries and Insights in Historical Geography Back MatterBibliography and AbbreviationsIndex of SourcesBIBLEGenesisExodusLeviticusNumbersDeuteronomyJoshuaJudgesII SamuelI KingsII KingsIsaiahJeremiahEzekielHoseaAmosMicahNahumZechariahPsalmsLamentationsEcclesiastesDanielEzraNebemiahI ChroniclesAPOCRYPHAI EnochJubileesJoseph's TestamentJuditI MaccabeesII MaccabeesNEW TESTAMENTMatthewLukeJohnJOSEPHUSAntiquites RABBINIC SOURCESMishnah Tosefta Midrash HalakhahBabylon TalmudJerusalem TalmudMidrash AggadahTargumimRehov InscriptionSELECTED ROMAN-BYZANTINE SOURCESGeneral IndexLinguistic IndexGeographical Name IndexIndex of Scholars and TravellersWord IndexBack Map Back Cover
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